Henry Bauer

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Henry Bauer

Henry H. Bauer is Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and Science Studies and Dean Emeritus of Arts and Sciences at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He was born in Austria and educated in Australia. After researching electrochemistry at the Universities of Sydney, Michigan, Southampton, and Kentucky, he turned to general issues relating to scientific activity, in particular how to differentiate science from pseudoscience. He has taught both undergraduate and graduate programs in humanities and science and technology studies. Upon retirement from teaching at the end of 1999, he became Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Scientific Exploration.

Bauer has challenged the HIV/AIDS hypothesis in several papers, based primarily on the fact that the data on HIV seroprevalence are incompatible with the notion that the HIV antibody tests are detecting a sexually transmissable virus. A good introduction to this line of reasoning is available in this seminar transcript PDFsmallicon.gif.

In 2007, Bauer published The Origin, Persistence, and Failings of HIV/AIDS Theory, detailing his arguments against the HIV paradigm and his own explanations of how it is has persisted for so long despite its failings.


  • "The orthodox rule is wrong and the paradigm is ready to be toppled." (Dellinger 2006)
  • "Data have now accumulated from tens of millions of tests, the great majority on groups not thought to be at any great risk. When those results are collated and compared, they turn out to be incompatible with the widely accepted (but not unanimous) view that HIV tests detect the AIDS-causing virus that is presumed to have spread via sex and infected needles from the original centers of AIDS – New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco." (Bauer 2005)
  • "Consider such types of behavior as smoking, say, or overeating. The prevalence of smoking has decreased overall during the last couple of decades in the United States, but less among those of lower income than among middle- and upper-income people. Among the latter, it has decreased among males but increased among females. Overall, smoking is now more prevalent among youth than among older adults, whereas fifty years ago the opposite was the case. In some cultural groups, smoking is very common among males and non-existent among women, whereas in other cultures there is no great difference. In other words, smoking is not influenced independently by age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Smoking varied differently with age in the past than now, it varies differently with sex in some cultures than in others, and its variation with sex has changed over time. Thus smoking is predominantly an acquired behavior, even if there is some physiological tendency toward or away from addiction in general or addiction to nicotine in particular.... A similar argument can be made as to overeating leading to obesity. Overeating is greater in some socioeconomic groups than in others. In some cultural settings, obesity is prized among women and is therefore common among them, whereas in other cultural settings, the opposite holds. Overeating is not influenced independently by age, sex, and race; it is a relatively malleable behavior, not unalterably determined by one's genes.... That such behaviors as smoking or overeating do not show regular variations by age, sex, and race demonstrates that they are determined more by environmental factors than by inherent ones. Conversely, if some measured characteristic is influenced independently by age, sex, and race, then that measured characteristic is primarily a matter of physiology and not an acquired, culture-determined behavior. F(HIV) [prevalence of positive HIV antibody test results] – the tendency to test HIV-positive – is influenced independently by age, sex, and race; therefore it is primarily a matter of physiology, not of any tendency to practice promiscuous unsafe sex." (Bauer 2007a)
  • "In the overwhelming majority of reports, the ratio of F(HIV) [prevalence of HIV antibodies] to that among whites is: Asians, 0.5–0.9; Native Americans, 1.1–1.6; Hispanics, 1.5–3.0; and blacks, 2.5–6.0. One has the choice of seeking for these observations a behavioral explanation or a non-behavioral one. Any behavioral explanation raises ghosts of such longdiscarded and properly discarded theories as phrenology, physiognomy, or Cesare Lombroso’s Criminal Anthropology, which asserted a strictly determinist connection between behavior and physique (or genome). Fortunately, a less racist and more scientifically (as well as politically) correct explanation is available." (Bauer 2005)
  • "The manner in which HIV/AIDS theory got on the wrong track and stayed there is a cogent illustration of the dilemmas faced by knowledge-seeking in the 21st century. In a nutshell, the intellectual free market that gave rise to modern science, starting in earnest roughly in the 17th century in Western Europe, was created by individual knowledge-seeking scientific entrepreneurs; it has morphed, most notably during the second half of the 20th century, into knowledge monopolies and research cartels dominated by commercial, official, and academic bureaucracies, in which the search for truth does not necessarily take priority over profit-seeking, institutional jockeying for political and social preferment, and public relations." (Bauer 2007b)

Documents and external links


Scientific papers

On Science and the Scientific Method

The Origin, Persistence, and Failings of HIV/AIDS Theory




  1. Bauer, Henry, 2005. "Demographic Characteristics of HIV, Part 1" PDFsmallicon.gif, Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 19, No. 4, p. 568, 2005
  2. Ibid. p. 589.
  3. Bauer, Henry, 2007. The Origin, Persistence, and Failings of HIV/AIDS Theory, pp. 30-31.
  4. Bauer, Henry, 2007. Preface to The Origins, Persistence, and Failings of HIV/AIDS Theory.
  5. Dellinger, Paul, 2006. "Retired professor argues that HIV does not cause AIDS", The Roanoke Times, 28 February 2006