Document:Drug Consumption references

From AIDS Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER NOTICE ON THIS PAGE, the material on this page is NOT available under the GNU Free Documentation License; in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107, it is posted in the manner of bulletin boards in schools and workplaces, to encourage public education and citizen awareness, without profit or payment, for persons and entities engaging in non-profit research and educational activities and purposes only.
AIDS Acquired by Drug Consumption and Other Noncontagious Risk Factors

Pharmacology & Therapeutics 55: 201–277, 1992

References

by Peter Duesberg


Table of Contents
How To Use This Document

Previous chapter


DuesbergJune87.jpg

Pharmther 3.jpg
  1. Achard, C., Bernard, H. and Gagneux, C. (1909) "Action de la morphine sur les proprietes leucocytaires; leuco-diagnostic du morphinisme". Bull. Memoires Societe Med. Hopitaux Paris 28: 958–966.
  2. Adams, J. (1989) AIDS: The HIV Myth. St Martin’s Press, New York.
  3. Afrasiabi, R., Mitsuyasu, R.T., Schwartz, K. and Fahey, J.L. (1986) "Characterization of a distinct subgroup of high-risk persons with Kaposi’s sarcoma and good prognosis who present with normal T4 cell number and T4:T8 ratio and negative HTLV-III/LAV serologic results". Am. J. Med. 81: 969–973.
  4. AIDS-Hemophilia French Study Group (1985) "Immunologic and virologic status of multitransfused patients: role of type and origin of blood products". Blood 66: 896–901.
  5. Albonico, H. (1991a) Lichtblicke zum zweiten Jahrzehnt in der AIDS-Forschung. Schweizerische Ærztezeitung 72: 379–380.
  6. Albonico, H. (1991b) Relativierung des HIV-Dogmas—Ein Beitrag zur Erweiterten Sicht von AIDS. Pädagogische Arbeitsstelle, Dortmund.
  7. Aledort, L.M. (1988) "Blood products and immune changes: impacts without HIV infection". Sem. Hematol. 25: 14–19.
  8. Alroomi, L.G., Davidson, J., Evans, T.J., Galea, P. and Howat, R. (1988) "Maternal narcotic abuse and the newborn". Arch. Dis. Child. 63: 81–83.
  9. Altman, L.K. (1992a) "New virus said to cause a condition like AIDS". The New York Times, July 23.
  10. Altman, L.K. (1992b) "Working in public to explain AIDS-like ills." The New York Times, August 18.
  11. Altman, L.K. (1992c) "Group with HIV has no symptoms". The New York Times, October 9.
  12. Amaro, H., Zuckerman, B. and Cabral, H. (1989) "Drug use among adolescent mothers: profile of risk". Pediatrics 84: 144–151.
  13. Anand, R., Reed, C., Forlenza, S., Siegal F., Cheung, T. and Moore, J. (1987) "Non-cytocidal natural variants of human immunodeficiency virus isolated from AIDS patients with neurological disorders". Lancet ii: 234–238.
  14. Anderson, D.J., O’Brien, T.R., Politich, J.A., Martinex, A., Seage, G.R., III, Padian, N., Horsburgh, R., Jr and Mayer, K.H. (1992) "Effects of disease stage and zidovudine therapy on the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in semen". J.Am. Med. Ass. 267: 2769–2774.
  15. Anderson, J. (1990) "AIDS in Thailand". Br. Med. J. 300: 415–416.
  16. Anderson, L.F. (1991) "Cancer Act anniversary encourages reflections, new visions". J. Natn. Cancer Inst. 83: 1795–1796.
  17. Anderson, R.M. and May, R.M. (1988) "Epidemiological parameters of HIV transmission". Nature (Lond.) 333: 514–519.
  18. Anderson, R.M. and May, R.M. (1992) "Understanding the AIDS pandemic". Sci. Am. 266: 20–26.
  19. Anderson, W. (1987) Drug Smuggling. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
  20. Annell, A., Fugelstad, A. and Agren, G. (1991) "HIV-prevalence and mortality in relation to type of drug abuse among drug addicts in Stockholm 1981–1988". In: Drug Addiction and AIDS, pp. 16–22, Loimer, N., Schmid, R. and Springer, A. (ed.) Springer-Verlag, New York.
  21. Anonymous (1984) "The cause of AIDS?" Lancet i: 1053–1054.
  22. Anonymous (1990) "Senate approves measures on transit and AIDS". The New York Times, August 6.
  23. Anonymous (1991) "Dentist-infected AIDS patient dies". Dallas Morning News, December 9.
  24. Anonymous (1992) "Doubts about zidovudine". Lancet 339: 421.
  25. Antonaci, S., Jirillo, E., Stasi, D., De Mitrio, V., La Via, M.F. and Bonomo, L. (1988) "Immunoresponsiveness in hemophilia: lymphocyte- and phagocytemediated functions." Diagn. clin. Immun. 5: 318–325.
  26. Aoun, H. (1989) "When a house officer gets AIDS". New Engl. J. Med. 321: 693496.
  27. Aoun, H. (1992) "From the eye of the storm, with the eyes of a physician". Ann. intern. Med. 116: 335–338.
  28. Aral, S.O. and Holmes, K.K. (1991) "Sexually transmitted diseases in the AIDS era". Sci. Am. 264: 62–69.
  29. Archer, C.B., Spittle, M.F. and Smith, N.P. (1989) "Kaposi’s sarcoma in a homosexual – 10 years on." Clin. exp. Derm. 14: 233–236.
  30. Archibald, C.P., Schecter, M.T., Le, T.N., Craib, K.J.P., Montaner, J.S.G. and O’Shaughnessy, M.V. (1992) "Evidence for a sexually transmitted cofactor for AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma in a cohort of homosexual men". Epidemiology 3: 203–209.
  31. Aronson, D.L. (1983) "Pneumonia deaths in haemophiliacs". Lancet ii: 1023.
  32. Aronson, D.L. (1988) "Cause of death in hemophilia patients in the United States from 1968 1979". Am. J. Hematol. 27: 7–12.
  33. Avramis, V.I., Markson, W., Jackson, R.L. and Gomperts, E. (1989) "Biochemical pharmacology of zidovudine in human T-lymphoblastoid cells (CEM)". AIDS 3: 417–422.
  34. Aylward, E.H., Butz, A.M., Hutton, N., Joyner, M.L. and Vogelhut, J.W. (1992) "Cognitive and motor development in infants at risk for human immunodeficiency virus". Am. J. Dis. Children 146: 218–222.
  35. Bagasra, O., Hauptman, S.P., Lischner, H.W., Sachs, M. and Pomerantz, R.J. (1992) "Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 provirus in mononuclear cells by in situ polymerase chain reaction". New Engl. J. Med. 326: 1385–1391.
  36. Bailey, H. (1968) The Vitamin Pioneers. Rodale, Emmaus, PA.
  37. Balter, M. (1991) "Montagnier pursues the mycoplasma-AIDS link". Science 251: 271.
  38. Baltimore, D. and Feinberg, M.B. (1989) "HIV revealed, toward a natural history of the infection". New Engl. J. Med. 321: 1673–1675.
  39. Baltimore, D. and Feinberg, M.B. (1990) "Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus in the blood". New Engl. J. Med. 322: 1468–1469.
  40. Balzarini, J., Herdewijn, P. and De Clercq, E. (1989) "Differential patterns of intracellular metabolism of 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine and 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine, two potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus compounds". J. biol. Chem. 264: 6127–6133.
  41. Bardach, A.L. (1992) "The heretic". Buzz, January/February: 68–73, 90, 92.
  42. Barinaga, M. (1992) "Confusion on the cutting edge". Science 257: 616–619.
  43. Bartholomew, C., Saxinger, W.C., Clark, J.W., Gail, M., Dudgeon, A., Mahabir, B., Hull-Drysdale, B., Cleghorn, F., Gallo, R.C. and Blattner, W.A. (1987) "Transmission of HTLV-I and HIV among homosexual men in Trinidad". J. Am. Med. Ass. 257: 2604–2608.
  44. Beardsley, T. (1986) "French virus in the picture". Nature (Lond.) 320: 563.
  45. Becherer, P.R., Smiley, M.L., Matthews, T.J., Weinhold, K.J., McMillan, C.W. and White, G.C., II (1990) "Human immunodeficiency virus-1 disease progression in hemophiliacs". Am J. Hematol. 34: 204–209.
  46. Beemon, K., Duesberg, P. and Vogt, P. (1974) "Evidence for crossing-over between avian tumor viruses based on analysis of viral RNAs". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71: 4254–4258.
  47. Belman, A.L., Diamond, G., Dickson, D., Horoupian, D., Llena, J., Lantos, G. and Rubenstein, A. (1988) "Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Am. J. Dis. Child. 142:29–35.
  48. Beral, V., Peterman, T.A., Berkelman, R.L. and Jaffe, H. W. (1990) "Kaposi’s sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection?" Lancet 335: 123–128.
  49. Bergeron, L. and Sodroski, J. (1992) "Dissociation of unintegrated viral DNA accumulation from single-cell lysis induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1". J. Virol. 66: 5777–5787.
  50. Berkley, S., Okware, S. and Naamara, W. (1989) "Surveillance for AIDS in Uganda". AIDS 3: 79–85.
  51. Bessen, L.J., Greene, J.B., Louie, E., Seitzman, L.E. and Weinberg, H. (1988) "Severe polymyositis-like syndrome associated with zidovudine therapy of AIDS and ARC". New Engl. J. Med. 318: 708.
  52. Bethell, T. (1992) "Heretic". The American Spectator, May: 18–19.
  53. Bialy, H. and Farber, C. (1992) "It’s time to re-evaluate the HIV AIDS hypothesis". Rethinking AIDS, 1: 1–2.
  54. Biggar, R.J. and The International Registry of Seroconverters (1990) "AIDS incubation in 1891 HIV seroconverters from different exposure groups". AIDS 4: 1059–1066.
  55. Blanche, S., Rouzioux, C., Moscato, M.L., Veber, F., Mayaux, M.J., Jacomet, C., Tricoire, J., Deville, A., Vial, M., Firton, G. and HIV Infection in Newborns French Collaborative Study Group (1989) "A prospective study of infants born to women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1". New Engl. J. Med. 320: 1643–1648.
  56. Blattner, W.A. (ed.) (1990) Human Retrovirology: HTLV. Raven Press, New York.
  57. Blattner, W.A. (1991) "HIV epidemiology: past, present, and future". FASEB J. 5: 2340–2348.
  58. Blattner, W.A., Biggar, R.J., Weiss, S.H., Clark, J.W. and Goedert, J.J. (1985) "Epidemiology of human lymphotropic retroviruses: an overview". Cancer Res. 45 (Suppl.): 4598–4601.
  59. Blattner, W.A., Gallo, R.C. and Temin, H.M. (1988) "HIV causes AIDS". Science 241: 514–515.
  60. Bolling, D.R. and Voeller, B. (1987) "AIDS and heterosexual anal intercourse". J. Am. Med. Ass. 258: 474.
  61. Booth, W. (1988) "A rebel without a cause for AIDS". Science 239: 1485–1488.
  62. Bove, J.R., Rigney, P.R. Kehoe, P.M. and Campbell, J. (1987) "Lookback: preliminary experience of AABB members". Transfusion 27: 201–202.
  63. Bowden, F.J., McPhee, D.A., Deacon, N.J., Cumming, S.A., Doherty, R.R., Sonza, S., Lucas, C.R. and Crowe, S.M. (1991) "Antibodies to gp41 and nef in otherwise HIV-negative homosexual man with Kaposi’s sarcoma". Lancet 337: 1313–1314.
  64. Brandt, A.M. (1988) "AIDS in historical perspective: four lessons from the history of sexually transmitted diseases". Am. J. Pub. Health 78: 367–371.
  65. Braun, M.M., Truman, B.I., Maguire, B., Di Ferdinando, G.T., Jr., Wormser, G., Broaddus, R. and Morse, D.L. (1989) "Increasing incidence of tuberculosis in a prison inmate population, associated with HIV-infection". J. Am. Med. Ass. 261: 393–397.
  66. Bregman, D.J. and Langmuir, A.D. (1990) "Farr’s law applied to AIDS projections". J. Am. Med. Ass. 263: 50–57.
  67. Brenner, H., Hernando-Briongos, P. and Goos, C. (1990) "AIDS among drug users in Europe". Drug Alcohol Depend. 29: 171–181.
  68. Breo, D.L. and Bergalis, K. (1990) "Meet Kimberly Bergalis &ndahs; the patient in the 'dental AIDS case.'" J. Am. Med. Ass. 264: 2018–2019.
  69. Briefings (1991) "All the [Science] that’s fit to print". Science 254: 649.
  70. Briggs, J.H., McKerron, C.G., Souhami, R.L., Taylor, D.J.E. and Andrews, H. (1967) "Severe systemic infections complicating 'mainline' heroin addiction". Lancet ii: 1227–1231.
  71. Brown, S.M., Stimmel, B., Taub, R.N., Kochwa, S. and Rosenfield, R.E. (1974) "Immunologic dysfunction in heroin addicts". Arch. intern. Med. 134: 1001–1006.
  72. Brudney, K. and Dobkin, J. (1991) "Resurgent tuberculosis in New York City". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 144: 744–749.
  73. Bryant, H.U., Cunningham, K.A. and Jerrells, T.R. (1992) "Effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse on immune responses". In: Cocaine: Pharmacology, Physiology and Clinical Strategies, pp. 353–369, Lalkoski, J.M., Galloway, M.P. and White, F.J. (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  74. Bschor, F., Bornemann, R., Borowski, C. and Schneider, V. (1991) "Monitoring of HIV-spread in regional populations of injecting drug users – the Berlin experience". In: Drug Addiction and AIDS, pp. 102–109, Loimer, N, Schmid, R. and Springer, A. (eds) Springer-Verlag, New York.
  75. Buehler, J.W., Devine, O.J., Berkelman, R.L. and Chevarley, F.M. (1990) "Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic on mortality trends in young men, United States". Am. J. Publ. Health 80: 1080–1086.
  76. Buimovici-Klein, E., Lange, M., Ong, K. R, Grieco, M.H. and Cooper, L.Z. (1988) "Virus isolation and immune studies in a cohort of homosexual men". J. Med. Virol. 25: 371–385.
  77. Bundesgesundheitsamt (Germany) (1991) "Bericht des AIDS-Zentrums des Bundesgesundheitsamtes über Aktuelle Epidemiologische Daten (bis zum 31.7.1991 )". AIDS-Forschung 6:509–512.
  78. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1988) Special Report – Drug Law Violators, 1980–1986. U.S. Department of Justice, Washinton, D.C.
  79. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1991) Catalog of Federal Publications on Illegal Drug and Alcohol Abuse. U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.
  80. Burke, D.S., Brundage, J.F., Goldenbaum, M., Gardner, M., Peterson, M., Visintine, R., Redfield, R. and Walter Reed Retrovirus Research Group (1990) "Human immunodeficiency virus infections in teenagers; seroprevalence among applicants for the U.S. military service". J. Am. Med. Ass. 263: 2074–2077.
  81. Burns, D.P.W. and Desrosiers, R.C. (1991) "Selection of genetic variants of simian immunodeficiency virus in persistently infected rhesus monkeys". J. Virol. 65: 1843–1854.
  82. Cairns, J. (1978) Cancer Science and Society. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
  83. Callen, M. (1990) Surviving AIDS. Harper Perennial, New York.
  84. Castro, A., Pedreira, J, Soriano, V., Hewlett, I., Jhosi, B., Epstein, J. and Gonzalez-Lahoz, J. (1992) "Kaposi’s sarcoma and disseminated tuberculosis in HIV-negative individual". Lancet 339: 868.
  85. Centers for Disease Control (1981) "Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men" – New York City and California. Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 30: 305–308.
  86. Centers for Disease Control (1982) "Epidemiologic aspects of the current outbreak of Kaposi’s sarcoma and opportunistic infections". New Engl. J. Med. 306: 248–252.
  87. Centers for Disease Control (1986) Reports on AIDS published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, June 1981 through May 1986. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.
  88. Centers for Disease Control (1987) "Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". J. Am. Med. Ass. 258: 1143–1154.
  89. Centers for Disease Control (1988) "Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human immunodeficiency virus infection among health-care workers". Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 37: 229–239.
  90. Centers for Disease Control (1990) "Possible transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to a patient during an invasive dental procedure". Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 39: 489~492.
  91. Centers for Disease Control (1991) "Opportunistic non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among severely immunocompromised HIV-infected patients surviving for prolonged periods on antiretroviral therapy – United States". Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 40: 591401.
  92. Centers for Disease Control (1992a) "The second 100,000 cases of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome – United States, June 1981-December 1991". Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 41: 28–29.
  93. Centers for Disease Control (1992b) HIV/AIDS Surveillance, Year-end Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.
  94. Centers for Disease Control (1992c) "Surveillance for occupationally acquired HIV infection – United States, 1981–1992". Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 41: 823–825.
  95. Chaisson, R.E., Bacchetti, P., Osmond, D., Brodie, B., Sande, M.A. and Moss, A.R. (1989) "Cocaine use and HIV infection in intravenous drug users in San Francisco". J. Am. Med. Ass. 261: 561–565.
  96. Chernov, H.I. (1986) Document on New Drug Application 19–655. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC.
  97. Christensen, A.C. (1991) "Novel reading". Nature (Lond.) 351: 600.
  98. Clark, S.J., Saag, M.S., Decker, W.D., Campbell-Hill, S., Roberson, J.L., Veldkamp, P.J., Knappes, J.C., Hahn, B.H. and Shaw, G.M. (1991) "High titers of cytopathic virus in plasma of patients with symptomatic primary HIV infection". New Engl. J. Med. 324: 954–960.
  99. Clifford, D. B, Jacoby, R. G, Miller, J. P, Seyfried, W.R. and Glicksman, M. (1990) "Neuropsychometric performance of asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects". AIDS 4: 767–774.
  100. Coffin, J., Haase, A., Levy, J.A., Montagnier R, L., Oroszlan, S., Teich, N., Temin, H., Varmus, H., Vogt, P. and Weiss, R. (1986) "Human immunodeficiency viruses". Science 232: 697.
  101. Cohen, J. (1992a) "Mystery virus meets the sceptics". Science 257: 1032–1034.
  102. Cohen, J. (1992b) "New virus reports roil AIDS meeting". Science 257: 604–605.
  103. Cohen, S.S. (1987) "Antiretroviral therapy for AIDS". New Engl. J. Med. 317: 629.
  104. Colebunders, R., Mann, J., Francis, H., Bila, K., Izaley, L., Kakonde, N., Kabasele, K., Ifoto, L., Nzilamba, N., Quinn, T., van der Groen, G., Curran, J., Vercauten, B. and Piot, P. (1987) "Evaluation of a clinical case definition of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Africa". Lancet i: 492–494.
  105. Collier, A.C., Meyers, J.D., Corey, L, Murphy, V. L, Roberts, P.L. and Hansfield, H.H. (1987) "Cytomegalovirus infection in homosexual men". Am. J. Med. 82: 593–601.
  106. Congressional Panel (1992) "Federal response to teen AIDS called 'National Disgrace.'" AIDS Weekly, April 20: 12–13.
  107. Connor, S. (1987) "One year in pursuit of the wrong virus". New Scientist 113: 49–58.
  108. Connor, S. (1991) "Million pound row over AIDS test". The Independent on Sunday, January 20.
  109. Connor, S. (1992) "Scientists dispute royalties on HIV blood-test patent". The Independent, August 14.
  110. Coombs, R.W., Collier, A.C., Allain, J.-P, Nikora, B., Leuther, M, Gjerset, G.F. and Corey, L. (1989) "Plasma viremia in human immunodeficiency virus infection". New Engl. J. Med. 321: 1626–1631.
  111. Cotton, P. (1990) "Cofactor question divides codiscoverers of HIV". J. Am. Med. Ass. 264:3111–3112.
  112. Cowley, G. (1992) "Is a new AIDS virus emerging?" Newsweek, July 27, 4: 41.
  113. Cox, G.D. (1986) "County Health Panel urges 'poppers' ban, cites AIDS link". The Los Angeles Daily Journal, March 24.
  114. Cox, T. C, Jacobs, M.R., Leblanc, A.E. and Marshman, J.A. (1983) Drugs and Drug Abuse. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada.
  115. Craib, K.J.P., Schechter, M.T., Le, T.N., O’Shaughnessy, M.V. and Montaner, J.S.G. (1992) HIV causes AIDS: a controlled study. VIII International Conference on AIDS/III STD World Congress, Amsterdam.
  116. Cramer, R. (1992) AIDS-Forschung—eine Besinnung. Neue Zürcher Zeitung, January 3.
  117. Cretton, E.M., Xie, M.Y., Bevan, R.J., Goudgaon, N.M., Schinazi, R.F. and Sommadossi, J.P. (1991) "Catabolism of 3'- azido-3'-deoxythymidine in hepatocytes and liver microsomes, with evidence of formation of 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine, a highly toxic catabolite for human bone marrow cells". Molec. Pharmac. 39: 258–266.
  118. Crewdson, J. (1989) "The great AIDS quest". Chicago Tribune, November 19.
  119. Crewdson, J. (1992) "House critique triggers another Gallo inquiry". Chicago Tribune, June 14.
  120. Culliton, B.J. (1976) "Legion fever: postmortem on an investigation that failed". Science 194:1025 1027.
  121. Culliton, B.J. (1990) "Inside the Gallo probe". Science 248: 1494–1498.
  122. Culver, K.W., Ammann, A.J., Partridge, J.C., Wong, D.F., Wara, D.W. and Cowan, M.J. (1987) "Lymphocyte abnormalities in infants born to drug abusing mothers". J. Pediat. 111: 230–235
  123. Curran, J., Lawrence, D.N., Jaffe, H., Kaplan, J.E., Zyla, L.D., Chamberland, M., Weinstein, R., Lui, K.-J, Schonberger, L. B., Spura, T.J., Alexander, W. J., Swinger, G., Ammann, A., Solomon, S., Auerbach, D., Mildvan, D., Stoneburner, R., Jason, J.M., Haverkos, H.W. and Evatt, B.L. (1984) "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with transfusions". New Engl. J. Med. 310: 69–75.
  124. Curran, J.W., Morgan, M.W., Hardy, A.M., Jaffe, H.W., Darrow, W.W. and Dowdle, W.R. (1985) "The epidemiology of AIDS: current status and future prospects". Science 229: 1352–1357.
  125. Daar, E.S., Moudgil, T., Meyer, R.D. and Ho, D.D. (1991) "Transient high levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection". New Engl. J. Med. 324: 961–964.
  126. Dalakas, M.C., Illa, I., Pezeshkpour R, G.H., Laukaitas, J.P., Cohen, B. and Griffin, J.L. (1990) "Mitochondrial myopathy caused by long-term zidovudine therapy". New Engl. J. Med. 322:1098–1105.
  127. Darby, S.C., Rizza, C.R., Doll, R., Spooner, R.J.D., Stratton, I.M. and Thakrar, B. (1989) "Incidence of AIDS and excess mortality associated with HIV in haemophiliacs in the United Kingdom: report on behalf of the directors of haemophilia centers in the United Kingdom". Br. Med. J. 298: 1064–1068.
  128. Darrow, W. W, Echenberg, D.F., Jaffe, H.W., O’Malley, P.M., Byers, R.H., Getchell, J.P. and Curran, J.W. (1987) "Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in homosexual men". Am. J. Publ. Health 77: 479–483.
  129. de Biasi, R., Rocino, A., Miraglia, E., Mastrullo, L. and Quirino, A.A. (1991) "The impact of a very high purity of factor VIII concentrate on the immune system of human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs: a randomized, prospective, two-year comparison with an intermediate purity concentrate". Blood 78: 1919–1922.
  130. De Cock, K.M., Selik, R.M., Soro, B., Gayle, H. and Colebunders, R.L. (1991) "AIDS surveillance in Africa: a reappraisal of case definitions". Br. Med. J. 303: 1185–1188.
  131. Deininger, S., Müller, R., Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I., Laukamm-Josten, U. and Bienzle, U. (1990) "Behavioral characteristics and laboratory parameters in homo- and bisexual men in West Berlin: an evaluation of five years of testing and counselling on AIDS". Klin. Wochenschr. 68: 906–913.
  132. Delaney, M. and Goldblum, P. (1987) Strategies for Survival: A Gay Men’s Health Manual for the Age of AIDS. St. Martin’s Press, New York.
  133. DeLoughry, T.J. (1991) "40 scientists call on colleagues to re-evaluate AIDS theory". The Chronicle of Higher Education, December 4.
  134. Des Jarlais, D., Friedman, S., Marmor, M., Cohne, H., Mildvan, D., Yancovitz, S., Mathur, U., Et-Sadr, W, Spira, T.J. and Garber, J. (1987) "Development of AIDS, HIV seroconversion, and potential cofactors for T4 cell loss in a cohort of intravenous drug users". AIDS 1:105–111.
  135. Des Jarlais, D., Friedman, S.R. and Hopkins, W. (1988) "Risk reduction of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among intravenous drug users". In: AIDS and IV Drug Abusers: Current Perspectives, pp. 97–109, Galea, R.P., Lewis, B.F. and Baker, L. (eds) National Health Publishing, Owings Mills, MD.
  136. Dismukes, W.E., Karchmer, A.W., Johnson, R.F. and Dougherty, W.J. (1968) "Viral hepatitis associated with illicit parenteral use of drugs". J. Am. Med. Ass. 206: 1048–1052.
  137. Don, P. C, Fusco, F., Fried, P., Baterman, A, Duncanson, F.P., Lenox, T.H. and Klein, N.C. (1990) "Nail dyschromia associated with zidovudine". Ann. intern. Med. 112: 145–146.
  138. Donahoe, R.M., Bueso-Ramos, C., Donahoe, F., Madden, J.J., Falek, A., Nicholson, J.K.A. and Boxos, P. (1987) "Mechanistic implications of the findings that opiates and other drugs of abuse moderate T-cell surface receptors and antigenic markers". Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 496: 711–721.
  139. Dournon, E., Matheron, S., Rozenbaum, W., Gharakanian, S., Michon, C., Girard, P.M., Perrone, C., Salmon, D., Detruchis, P., Leport, C. and Claude Bernard Hospital AZT Study Group (1988) "Effects of zidovudine in 365 consecutive patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex". Lancet ii: 1297–1302.
  140. Doyle, A.C., Sir (1928) The Boscombe Valley Mystery. John Murray, London.
  141. Drew, W.L., Mills, J., Levy, J., Dylewski, J., Casavant, C., Amann, A.J., Brodie, H. and Merigan, T. (1985) "Cytomegalovirus infection and abnormal T-lymphocyte subset ratios in homosexual men". Ann. intern. Med. 103: 61~53
  142. Drotman, D.P., T.A. Peterman and A.E. Friedman-Kien (1995) "Kaposi’s sarcoma. How can epidemiology help find the cause?" Dermatoepidemiology 13: 575–582.
  143. Dubin, G. and Braffmann, M.N. (1989) "Zidovudine-induced hepatotoxicity". Ann. intern. Med. 110: 85–86.
  144. Duckett, M. and Orkin, A.J. (1989) "AIDS-related migration and travel policies and restrictions: a global survey". AIDS 3 (Suppl. 1): s231-s252.
  145. Duesberg, P.H. (1968) "The RNAs of influenza virus". Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 59: 930–937.
  146. Duesberg, P.H.. (1987) "Retroviruses as carcinogens and pathogens: expectations and reality". Cancer Res. 47: 1199–1220.
  147. Duesberg, P.H. (1989a) "Defective viruses and AIDS". Nature (Lond.) 340: 515.
  148. Duesberg, P.H. (1989b) "Does HIV cause AIDS?" J. AIDS 2: 514–515.
  149. Duesberg, P.H. (1989c) "Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation". Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86: 755–764.
  150. Duesberg, P.H. (1990a) "AIDS: non-infectious deficiencies acquired by drug consumption and other risk factors". Res. Immun. 141:5–11.
  151. Duesberg, P.H. (1990b) "Responding to the AIDS debate". Naturwissenschaften 77: 97–102.
  152. Duesberg, P.H. (1990c) "Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus in the blood". New Engl. J. Med. 322: 1466.
  153. Duesberg, P.H. (1991a) "AIDS epidemiology: inconsistencies with human immunodeficiency virus and with infectious disease". Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88: 1575–1579.
  154. Duesberg, P.H. (1991b) "Can alternative hypotheses survive in this era of megaprojects?" The Scientist, July 8
  155. Duesberg, P.H. (1991c) "Defense says only AIDS not infectious" (letter). San Francisco Examiner, August 30.
  156. Duesberg, P.H. (1992a) "AIDS: the alternative view" (letter). Lancet 339: 1547.
  157. Duesberg, P.H. (1992b) "A giant hole in the HIV-AIDS hypothesis". The Sunday Times, May 31.
  158. Duesberg, P.H. (1992c) "HIV as target for zidovudine". Lancet 339: 551.
  159. Duesberg, P.H. (1992d) "HIV, AIDS, and zidovudine". Lancet 339: 805–806.
  160. Duesberg, P.H. (1992e) "Questions about AIDS" (letter). Nature (Lond.) 358: 10.
  161. Duesberg, P.H. (1992f) "The role of drugs in the origin of AIDS". Biomed. Pharmacother. 46: 3–15.
  162. Duesberg. P.H. and Ellison, B.J. (1990) "Is the AIDS virus a science fiction?" Policy Rev. 53: 40–51.
  163. Duesberg. P.H. and Schwartz, J.R. (1992) "Latent viruses and mutated oncogenes: no evidence for pathogenicity". Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Molec. Biol. 43: 135–204.
  164. Duesberg, P.H. and Vogt, P.K. (1970) "Differences between the ribonucleic acids of transforming and non-transforming avian tumor viruses". Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 67: 1673–1680.
  165. Editorial (1987) "AIDS in Africa". Lancet ii: 192–194.
  166. Editorial (1990) "Zidovudine for symptomless HIV infection". Lancet 335: 821–822.
  167. Editorial (1991) "The impact of the National Cancer Act". J. Natn. Cancer Inst. 83: S1-S16.
  168. Eggers, H.J. and Weyer, J.J. (1991) "Linkage and independence of AIDS Kaposi disease: the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus and some coagents". Infection 19: 115–122.
  169. Eigen, M. (1989) "The AIDS debate". Naturwissenschaften 76: 341–350.
  170. Elwell, L.P., Ferone, R., Freeman, G.A., Fyfe, J.A., Hill, J.A., Ray, P. II., Richards, C.A., Singer, S. C., Knick, C. B, Rideout, J.L. and Zimmerman, T.P. (1987) "Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (BW A509U)". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31: 274–280.
  171. Ensoli, B., Barillari, G., Salahuddin, S.Z., Gallo, R.C. and Wong-Staal, F. (1990) "Tat protein of HIV-I stimulates growth of cells derived from Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions of AIDS patients". Nature (Lond.) 345: 84–86.
  172. Espinoza, P., Bouchard, I., Buffet, C., Thiers, V., Pillot, J. and Etienne, J.P. (1987) "High prevalence of infection by hepatitis B virus and HIV in incarcerated French drug addicts". Gastroenterol. clin. Biol. 11: 288–292.
  173. Ettinger, N.A. and Albin, R.J. (1989) "A review of the respiratory effects of smoking cocaine". Am. J. Med. 87: 664–668.
  174. European Collaborative Study (1991) "Children born to women with HIV-I infection: natural history and risk of transmission". Lancet 337: 253–260.
  175. Evans, A.S. (1989a) "Author’s reply". J. AIDS 2: 515–517.
  176. Evans, A.S. (1989b) "Does HIV cause AIDS? An historical perspective". J. AIDS 2: 107–113.
  177. Evans, A.S. (1989c) Viral Infections of Humans, Epidemiology and Control. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.
  178. Evans, A.S. (1992) "AIDS: the alternative view" (letter). Lancet 339: 1547.
  179. Evatt, B.L., Ramsey, R.B. Lawrence, D.N., Zyla, L.D. and Curran, J.W. (1984) "The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in patients with hemophilia". Ann. intern. Med. 100: 499-505.
  180. Evatt, B.L., Gomperts, E.D., McDougal, J.S. and Ramsey, R.B. (1985) "Coincidental appearance of LAV/HTLV-III antibodies in hemophiliacs and the onset of the AIDS epidemic". New Engl. J. Med. 312: 483–486.
  181. Eyster, M.E., Whitehurst, D.A., Catalano, P.M., McMillan, C.W., Goodnight, S.H., Kasper, C.K., Gill, J.C., Aledort, L.M., Hilgartner, M.W., Levine, P.H., Edson, J.R., Hathaway, W.E., Lusher, J.M., Gill, F.M., Poole, W.K. and Shapiro, S.S. (1985) "Long-term follow-up of hemophiliacs with lymphocytopenia or thrombocytopenia". Blood 66: 1317–1320.
  182. Farber, C. (1992) "Fatal distraction". Spin 3: 36–45, 84, 90–91.
  183. Fauci, A. (1989) "Writing for my sister Denise". The AAAS Observer, Supplement to Science, September 1: 4.
  184. Fauci, A.S. (1991) "The role of the endogenous cytokines in the regulation of HIV expression". HIV Adv. Res. Ther. 1: 3–7.
  185. Fenner, F., McAuslan, B.R., Mims, C.A., Sambrook, J. and White, D.O. (1974) The Biology of Animal Viruses. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
  186. Fineberg, H.V. (1988) "The social dimensions of AIDS". Sci. Am. 259: 128–134.
  187. Finnegan, L.P., Mellot, J.M., Williams, L.R. and Wapner, R.J. (1992) "Perinatal exposure to cocaine: human studies". In: Cocaine: Pharmacology, Physiology and Clinical Strategies, pp. 391–409, Lakoski, J.M., Galloway, M.P. and White, F.J. (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  188. Fischl, M.A., Richman, D.D., Grieco, M.H., Gottlieb, M.S., Volberding, P.A., Laskin, O.L., Leedon, J.M. Groopman, J.E., Mildvan, D., Schooley, R.T., Jackson, G.G., Durack, D.T., King, D. and AZT Collaborative Working Group (1987) "The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex". New Engl. J. Med. 317: 185–191.
  189. Fischl, M.A., Richman, D.D., Causey, D.M., Grieco, M.H., Bryson, Y., Mildvan, D., Laskin, O.L., Groopman, J.E., Volberding, P.A., Schooley, R.T., Jackson, G.G., Durack, D.T., Andrews, J.C., Nusinoff-Lehrman, S., Barry, D.W. and AZT Collaborative Working Group (1989) "Prolonged zidovudine therapy in patients with AIDS and advanced AIDS-related complex". J. Am. Med. Ass. 262: 2405–2410.
  190. Flanagan, T.J. and Maguire, K. (1989) Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics (1989)—Bureau of Justice Statistics NCJ-124224. U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
  191. Folkart, B.A. (1989) "Paul Gann dies; Tax-crusading Prop. 13 author". Los Angeles Times, September 12.
  192. Francis, D.P. (1983) "The search for the cause". In: The AIDS Epidemic, pp. 137–148, Cahill, K.M. (ed.) St. Martin’s Press, New York.
  193. Francis, D.P., Curran, J.W. and Essex, M. (1983) "Epidemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome: epidemiologic evidence for a transmissible agent". J. natn. Cancer Inst. 71: 1–4.
  194. Freeman, B.A. (1979) Burrows Textbook of Microbiology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
  195. Freestone, D.S. (1992) "Zidovudine". Lancet 339: 626.
  196. Fricker, H.S. and Segal, S. (1978) "Narcotic addiction, pregnancy, and the newborn". Am. J. Dis. Child. 132: 360–366.
  197. Friedland, G.H., Satzman, B.R., Rogers, M.F., Kahl, P.A., Lesser, M.L., Mayers, M.M. and Klein, R.S. (1986) "Lack of transmission of HTLV-III/LAV infection to household contacts of patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex with oral candidiasis". New Engl. J. Med. 314: 344–349.
  198. Friedman-Kien, A.E., Saltzman, B.R., Cao, Y., Nestor, M.S., Mirabile, M., Li, J.J. and Peterman, T.A. (1990) "Kaposi’s sarcoma in HIV-negative homosexual men". Lancet 335: 168–169.
  199. Froesner, G. (1991) "Congress report: VII Internationale AIDS-Konferenz in Florenz", 1991. AIDS-Forschung 9: 477–486.
  200. Fry, T.C. (1989) The Great AIDS Hoax. Life Science Inst., Austin, TX.
  201. Fultz, P.N., Stricker, R.B., McClure, H.M., Anderson, D.C., Switzer,W. M. and Horaist, C. (1990) "Humoral response to SIV/SMM infection in macaque and mangabey monkeys". J. AIDS 3: 319–329.
  202. Furman, P.A., Fyfe, J.A., St Clair, M., Weinhold, K., Rideout, J.L., Freeman, G.A., Nusinoff-Lehrman, S., Bolognesi, D.P., Broder, S., Mitsuya, H. and Barry, D.W. (1986) "Phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3' deoxythymidine and selective interaction of the 5'-triphosphate with human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase". Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83: 8333–8337.
  203. Gajdusek, D.C. (1977) "Unconventional viruses and the origin and disappearance of kuru". Science 197: 943–960.
  204. Gallo, R.C. (1987) "The AIDS virus". Sci. Am. 256: 45–46.
  205. Gallo, R.C. (1990) "Mechanism of disease induction by HIV". J. AIDS 3: 380–389.
  206. Gallo, R.C. (1991) Virus-Hunting—AIDS, Cancer, and the Human Retrovirus: A Story of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, New York.
  207. Gallo, R.C. (1992) "Self-deluding" (letter). The Sunday Times, May 24.
  208. Gallo, R.C. and Montagnier, L. (1987) "The chronology of AIDS research". Nature (Lond.) 326: 435–436.
  209. Gallo, R.C. and Montagnier, L. (1988) "AIDS in 1988". Sci. Am. 259: 41–48.
  210. Gallo, R.C., Sarin, P.S., Gelmann, E.P., Robert-Guroff, M. and Richardson, E. (1983) "Isolation of human T-cell leukemia virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science 220: 865–867.
  211. Gallo, R.C., Salahuddin, S.Z., Popovic, M., Shearer, G.M., Kaplan, M., Haynes, B.F., Palker, T.J., Redfield, R., Oleske, J., Safai, B., White, G., Foster, P. and Markham, P.D. (1984) "Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retrovirus (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS". Science 224: 500–503.
  212. Garry, R.F. and Koch, G. (1992) "Tat contains a sequence related to snake neurotoxins" [letter]. AIDS 6: 1541–1542.
  213. Garry, R. F, Witte, M.H., Gottlieb, A. A, Elvin-Lewis, M., Gottlieb, M. S, Witte, C. L, Alexander, S. S., Cole, W.R. and Drake, W.L. (1988) "Documentation of an AIDS virus infection in the United States in 1968". J. Am. Med. Ass. 260: 2085–2087.
  214. Garry, R.F., Kort, J.J., Koch-Nolte, F. and Koch, G. (1991) "Similarities of viral proteins to toxins that interact with monovalent cation channels". AIDS 5: 1381–1384.
  215. Geller, S.A. and Simmel, B. (1973) "Diagnostic confusion from lymphatic lesions in heroin addicts". Ann. intern. Med. 78: 703–705.
  216. Gilks, C. (1991) "What use is a clinical case definition for AIDS in Africa?" Br. Med. J. 303: 1189–1190.
  217. Gill, J.C., Menitove, M.D., Anderson, P.R., Casper, J.T., Devare, S.G., Wood, C., Adair, S., Casey, J., Scheffel, C. and Montgomery, M.D. (1986) "HTLV-III serology in hemophilia: relationship with immunologic abnormalities". J. Pediat. 108: 511–516.
  218. Gill, P.S., Rarick, M., Byrnes, R.K., Causey, D, Loureiro, C. and Levine, A.M. (1987) "Azidothymidine associated with bone marrow failure in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Ann. intern. Med. 107: 502–505.
  219. Ginzburg, H.M. (1988) "Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and drug abuse". In: AIDS and I.V. Drug Abusers Current Perspectives, pp. 61–73, Galea, R.P., Lewis, B.F. and Baker, L. (eds) National Health Publishing, Owings Mills, MD.
  220. Goedert, J.J., Neuland, C.Y., Wallen, W.C., Greene, M.H., Mann, D.L., Murray, C., Strong, D. M., Fraumeni, J.F., Jr and Blattner, W.A. (1982) "Amyl nitrite may alter T lymphocytes in homosexual men". Lancet i: 412–416.
  221. Goedert, J.J., Kessler, C.M., Aledort, L.M., Biggar, R.J., Andes, W.A., White, G.C., II, Drummond, J.E., Vaidya, K., Mann, D.L., Eyster, M.E., Ragni, M.V., Lederman, M.M., Cohen, A.R., Bray, G.L. Rosenberg, P.S., Friedman, R.M., Hilgartner, M.W., Blattner, W.A., Kroner, B. and Gail, M.H. (1989) "A prospective study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and the development of AIDS in subjects with hemophilia". New Engl. J. Med. 321: 1141–1148.
  222. Goldsmith, M.S. (1990) "Science ponders whether HIV acts alone or has another microbe’s aid". J. Am. Med. Ass. 264: 265–266.
  223. Goodgame, R.W. (1990) "AIDS in Uganda—clinical and social features". New Engl. J. Med. 323: 383–389.
  224. Gorard, D.A. and Guilodd, R.J. (1988) "Necrotising myopathy and zidovudine". Lancet 1: 1050.
  225. Gottlieb, M.S., Schanker, H.M., Fan, P.T., Saxon, A., Weisman, J.D. and Pozalski, J. (1981) "Pneumocystis pneumonia—Los Angeles". Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 230: 250–252.
  226. Goudsmit, J. (1992) "Alternative view on AIDS". Lancet 339: 1289–1290.
  227. Graham, N.M.H., Zeger, S.L., Park, L.P., Phair, J.P., Detels, R., Vermund, S.H., Ho, M., Saah, A.J. and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (1991) "Effect of zidovudine and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis on progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS". Lancet 338: 265–269.
  228. Greenberg, D.S. (1986) "Whatever happened to the war on cancer?" Discover, March, 47–66.
  229. Grimshaw, J. (1987) "Being HIV antibody-positive". Br. Med. J. 295: 256–257.
  230. Guinan, M.E. and Hardy, A. (1987) "Epidemiology of AIDS in women in the United States, 1981 through 1986". J. Am. Med. Ass. 257: 2039–2042.
  231. Guyton A.C. (1987) Textbook of Medical Physiology. W.B. Saunders, New York.
  232. Haas, M. (1989) "The need for a search for a proximal principle of human AIDS". Cancer Res. 49: 2184–2187.
  233. Hahn, B.H., Shaw, G.M., Taylor, M.E., Redfield, R.R., Markham, P.D., Salahuddin, S.Z., Wong-Staal, F., Gallo, R.C., Parks, E.S. and Parks, W.P. (1986) "Genetic variation in HTLV-III/LAV over time in patients with AIDS or at risk for AIDS". Science 232: 1548–1553.
  234. Hamilton, D.P. (1991a) "What next in the Gallo case?" Science 254: 941–945.
  235. Hamilton, D.P. (1991b) "Hints emerge from the Gallo probe". Science 253: 728–731.
  236. Hamilton, J.D., Hartigan, P.M., Simberkoff, M.S., Day, P.L., Diamond, G.R., Dickinson, G.M., Drusano, G.L., Egorin, M.J., George, W.L., Gordin, F.M. and Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on AIDS Treatment (1992) "A controlled trial of early versus late treatment with zidovudine in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection". New Engl. J. Med. 326: 437–443.
  237. Hardy, A.M., Allen, J.R., Morgan, W.M. and Curran, J.W. (1985) "The incidence rate of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in selected populations". J. Am. Med. Ass. 253: 215–220.
  238. Harris, P.D. and Garret, R. (1972) "Susceptibility of addicts to infection and neoplasia". New Engl. J. Med. 287: 310.
  239. Haseltine, W.A. and Wong-Staal, F. (1988) "The molecular biology of the AIDS virus". Sci. Am. 259: 52–62.
  240. Haverkos, H.W. (1988a) "Epidemiologic studies—Kaposi’s sarcoma vs opportunistic infections among homosexual men with AIDS". In: Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants, pp. 96–105, Haverkos, H.W. and Dougherty, J.A. (eds) NIDA Research Monograph 83, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  241. Haverkos, H.W. (1988b) "Kaposi’s sarcoma and nitrite inhalants". In: Psychological, Neuropsychiatric and Substance Abuse Aspects of AIDS, pp. 165–172, Bridge, T.P., Mirsky, A.F. and Goodwin, F.K. (eds) Raven Press, New York.
  242. Haverkos, H.W. (1990) "Nitrite inhalant abuse and AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma". J. AIDS 3 (Suppl. 1): 547-550.
  243. Haverkos, H.W. and Dougherty, J.A. (eds) (1988) Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants. NIDA Research Monograph 83, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  244. Haverkos, H.W., Pinsky, P.F., Drotman, D.P. and Bregman, D.J. (1985) "Disease manifestation among homosexual men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a possible role of nitrites in Kaposi’s sarcoma". J. Sexually Transmitted Dis. 12: 203–208.
  245. Hearst, N. and Hulley, S. (1988) "Preventing the heterosexual spread of AIDS: are we giving our patients the best advice?" J. Am. Med. Ass. 259: 2428–2432.
  246. Helbert, M., Fletcher, T., Peddle, B., Harris, J.R.W. and Pinching, A.J. (1988) "Zidovudine-associated myopathy". Lancet ii: 689–690.
  247. Hersh, E.M., Reuben, J. M., Bogerd, H., Rosenblum, M., Bielski, M., Mansell, P.W.A., RIos, A., Newell, G.R. and Sonnenfeld, G. (1983) "Effect of the recreational agent isobutyl nitrite on human peripheral blood leukocytes and on in vitro interferon production". Cancer Res. 43: 1365–1371.
  248. Heyward, W.L. and Curran, J.W. (1988) "The epidemiology of AIDS in the U.S." Sci. Am. 259: 72–81.
  249. Hilts, P.J. (1992) "Monkey’s HIV vulnerability portends AIDS breakthrough". The New York Times, June 12.
  250. Hishida, O., Ido, E., Igarashi, T., Hayami, M., Miyazaki, M., Ayisi, N.K. and Osei-Kwasi, M. (1992) "Clinically diagnosed AIDS cases without evident association with HIV type 1 and 2 infection in Ghana". Lancet 340: 971–972.
  251. Hitchcock, M.J.M. (1991) "Review: antiviral portrait series, Number 1; 2',3'-didehydro-2',3' dideoxythymidine (D4T), and anti-HIV agent". Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 2: 125–132.
  252. Ho, D.D, Moudgil, T. and Alam, M. (1989a) "Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons". New Engl. J. Med. 321: 1621–1625.
  253. Ho, D.D., Moudgil, T., Robin, H.S., Alam, M., Wallace, B.J. and Mizrachi, Y. (1989b) "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in a seronegative patient with visceral Kaposi’s sarcoma and hypogamma globulinemia". Am. J. Med. 86: 349–351.
  254. Ho, H.-T. and Hitchcock, M.J.M. (1989) "Cellular pharmacology of 2',3'-dideoxy-2, 3'-didehydrothymidine, a nucleotide analog active against human immunodeficiency virus". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 844–849.
  255. Hodgkinson, N. (1992) "Experts mount startling challenge to AIDS orthodoxy". The Sunday Times (Focus), April 26.
  256. Hoffman, M.S. (ed.) (1992) World Almanac and Book of Facts. Scripps Howard Co., New York.
  257. Hoffmann, G.W. (1990) "A response to P.H. Duesberg with reference to an idiotypic network model of AIDS immunopathogenesis". Res. Immun. 141: 701–709.
  258. Holmberg, S.D., Conley, L.J., Buchbinder, S.P., Judson, F.N., Bush, T.J., Katz, M.H., Penley, K.A., and Hershow, R.C. (1992) "Use of therapeutic and prophylactic drugs for AIDS by homosexual and bisexual men in three U.S. cities". AIDS 7: 699–704.
  259. Holub, W.R. (1988) "AIDS: a new disease?" Am. Clin. Prod. Rev. 7: 28–37.
  260. Hoxie, J.A., Haggarty, B.S., Rakowski, J.L., Pillsbury, N. and Levy, J.A. (1985) "Persistent noncytopathic infection of normal human T lymphocytes with AIDS-associated retrovirus". Science 229: 1400–1402.
  261. Huang, Y.Q., Li, J.J., Rush, M.G., Poiesz, B.J., Nicolaides, A., Jacobson, M., Zhang, W.G., Coutavas, E, Abbott, M.A. and Friedman-Kien, A.E. (1992) "HPV-16-related DNA sequences in Kaposi’s sarcoma". Lancet 339: 515–518.
  262. Institute of Medicine (1986) Confronting AIDS. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  263. Institute of Medicine (1988) Confronting AIDS—Update 1988. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  264. Jaffe, H.W., Bregman, D.J. and Selik, R.M. (1983a) "Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States: the first 1,000 cases". J. Infect. Dis. 148: 339–345.
  265. Jaffe, H.W., Choi, K., Thomas, P.A., Haverkos, H.W., Auerbach, D.M., Guinan, M.E., Rogers, M.F., Spira, T.J., Darrow, W.W., Kramer, M.A., Friedman, S.M., Monroe, J.M., Friedman-Kien, A.E., Lubenstein, L.J., Marmor, M., Safai, B., Dritz, S.K., Crispi, S.J., Fannin, S.L., Orkwis, J.P., Kelter, A., Rushing W.R., Thacker, S.B. and Curran, J.W. (1983b) "National case-control study of Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men: Part 1, epidemiologic results". Ann. intern. Med. 99: 145–151.
  266. Jason J., Holman, R.C., Evatt, B.L. and Hemophilia-AIDS Collaborative Study Group (1990) "Relationship of partially purified factor concentrates to immune tests and AIDS". Am. J. Hematol. 34: 262–269.
  267. Jin, Z., Cleveland, R.P. and Kaufman, D.B. (1989) "Immunodeficiency in patients with hemophilia: an underlying deficiency and lack of correlation with factor replacement therapy or exposure to human immunodeficiency virus". Allergy clin. Immun. 83: 165–170.
  268. Johnson, R.E., Lawrence, D.N., Evatt, B.L., Bregman, D.J., Zyal, L.D., Curran, J.W., Aledort, L.M., Eyster, M.E., Brownstein, A.P. and Carman, C.J. (1985) "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among patients attending hemophilia treatment centers and mortality experience of hemophiliacs in the United States". Am. J. Epidemiol. 121: 797–810.
  269. Jorgenson, K.A. and Lawesson, S.-O. (1982) "Amyl nitrite and Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men". New Engl. J. Med. 307: 893–894.
  270. Judson, 1:7. N., Penley, K.A., Robinson, M.E. and Smith, J.K. (1980) "Comparative prevalence rates of sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual and homosexual men". Am. J. Epidemiol. 112: 836–843.
  271. Kaslow, R.A., Blackwelder, W.C., Ostrow, D.G., Yerg, D., Palenneck, J., Goulson, A.H. and Valdiserri, R.O. (1989) "No evidence for a role of alcohol or other psychoactive drugs in accelerating immunodeficiency in HIV-I positive individuals". J. Am. Med. Ass. 261: 3424–3429.
  272. Kestler, H., Kodoma, T., Ringler, R, D., Marthas, M., Pederson, N., Lackner, A., Regier, D., Sehgal, P., Daniel, M., King, N. and Desrosiers, R. (1990) "Induction of AIDS in rhesus monkeys by molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus". Science 248: 1109–1112.
  273. Kestler, H.W., Ringler, D.J., Mori, M.D., Panicalli, D.L., Sehgal, P.K., Daniel, M.D. and Desrosiers, R.C. (1991) "Importance of the nef gene for maintenance of high virus loads and for development of AIDS". Cell 65: 651462.
  274. Klein, G. (1988) "The role of science". J. AIDS 1: 611415.
  275. Koch, T. (1990) "Uninfected children of HIV-infected mothers may still suffer nervous problems". CDC AIDS Weekly, July 30: 9.
  276. Koch, T.K., Jeremy, R, Lewis, E, Weintraub, P. and Cowan, M. (1990) "Developmental abnormalities in uninfected infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers". Ann. Neurol. 28: 456–457.
  277. Koerper, M.A. (1989) "AIDS and hemophilia". In: AIDS: Pathogenesis and Treatment, pp. 79–95, Levy, J.A. (ed.) Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
  278. Kolata, G. (1987) "Imminent marketing of AZT raises problems; marrow suppression hampers AZT use in AIDS victims". Science 235: 1462–1463.
  279. Kolata, G. (1992) "After 5 years of use, doubt still clouds leading AIDS drug". The New York Times, June 2.
  280. Kono, R. (1975) "Introductory review of subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON) and its studies done by the SMON research commission". Jap. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 28 (Suppl.): 1–21.
  281. Konotey-Ahulu, F.I.D. (1987) "AIDS in Africa: misinformation and disinformation". Lancet ii: 206–207.
  282. Konotey-Ahulu, F.I.D. (1989) What is AIDS? Tetteh-A’Domenco Co., Watford, England.
  283. Kozel, N.J. and Adams, E.H. (1986) "Epidemiology of drug abuse: an overview". Science 234: 970–974.
  284. Kreek, M.J. (1991) "Methadone maintenance treatment for harm reduction approach to heroin addiction". In: Drug Addiction and AIDS, pp. 153–178, Loimer, N., Schmid, R. and Springer, A. (eds) Springer-Verlag, New York.
  285. Kreiss, J.K., Kasper, C.K., Fahey, J.L., Weaver, M., Visscher, B.R., Stewart, J.A. and Lawrence, D.N. (1984) "Nontransmission of T-cell subset abnormalities from hemophiliacs to their spouses". J. Am. Med. Ass. 251: 1450–1454.
  286. Kreiss, J.K., Kitchen, L.W., Prince, H.E., Kasper, C.K., Goldstein, A.L., Naylor, P.H., Preble, O., Stewart, J.A. and Essex, M. (1986) "Human T cell leukemia virus type III antibody, lymphadenopathy, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in hemophiliac subjects". Am. J. Med. 80: 345–350.
  287. Lambert, B. (1991) "Kimberly Bergalis is dead of AIDS at 23 (contracted from a health care worker)" (Obituary). The New York Times, December 9.
  288. Landesmann, S., Minkoff, H., Holman, S., McCalla, S. and Sijin, O. (1987) "Serosurvey of human immunodeficiency virus infection in parturients". J. Am. Med. Ass. 258: 2701–2703.
  289. Lang, D.J., Kovacs, A.A.S., Zaia, J.A., Doelkin, G., Niland, J.C., Aledort, L., Azen, S.P., Fletcher, M. A., Gauderman, J., Gjerst, G.J., Lusher, J., Operskalski, E.A., Parker, J.W., Pegelow, C., Vyas, G.N., Mosley, J.W. and The Transfusion Safety Group (1989) "Seroepidemiologic studies of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections in relation to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in selected recipient populations". J. AIDS 2: 540–549.
  290. Lang, W., Perkins, H., Anderson, R.E., Royce, R., Jewell, N. and Winkelstein, W., JR (1989) "Patterns of T lymphocyte changes with human immunodeficiency virus infection: from seroconversion to the development of AIDS". J. AIDS 2: 63–69.
  291. Lang, W., Osmond, D., Samuel, M., Moss, A., Schrager, L. and Winkelstein, W., JR (1991) "Population-based estimates of zidovudine and aerosol pentamidine use in San Francisco: 1987–1989". J. AIDS 4: 713–716.
  292. Lange, W.R., Dax, E.M., Haertzen, C.A., Snyder, F.R. and Jaffe, J.H. (1988) "Nitrite inhalants: contemporary patterns of abuse". In: Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants, pp. 86–94, Haverkos, H.W. and Dougherty, J.A. (eds) National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  293. Langhoff, E., McElrath, J., Bos, H.J., Pruett, J., Granelli-Piperno, A., Cohn, Z.A. and Steinman, R.M. (1989) "Most CD4 + T cells from human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected patients can undergo prolonged clonal expansion". J. Clin. Invest. 84: 1637–1643.
  294. Laurence, J., Siegal, F.P., Schattner, E., Gelman, I.H. and Morse, S. (1992) "Acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2". Lancet 340: 273–274.
  295. Laurent-Crawford, A. G., Krust, B., Muller, S., Riviere, Y., Rey-Cuille, M.-A., Bechet, J.-M., Montagnier, L. and Hovanessian, A.G. (1991) "The cytopathic effect of HIV is associated with apoptosis". Virology 185: 829–839.
  296. Lauritsen, J. (1990) Poison by Prescription – The AZT Story. Asklepios Press, New York.
  297. Lauritsen, J. (1991) "The “AIDS” war: censorship and propaganda dominate media coverage of the epidemic". New York Native, August 12.
  298. Lauritsen, J. (1992) "FDA documents show fraud in AZT trials". New York Native, March 30.
  299. Lauritsen, J. and Wilson, H. (1986) Death Rush: Poppers and AIDS. Pagan Press, New York.
  300. Lawrence, D.N., Jason, J.M., Holman, R.C. and Murphy, J.J. (1990) "HIV transmission from hemophilic men to their heterosexual partners". In: Heterosexual Transmission of AIDS, pp. 35-53, Alexander, N.J., Gabelnick, H.L. and Spieler, J.M. (eds) Wiley-Liss, New York.
  301. Layon, J., Idris, A., Warsynski, M., Sherer, R., Brauner, D., Patch, O., McCulley, D. and Orris, P. (1984) "Altered T-lymphocyte subsets in hospitalized intravenous drug abusers". Arch. intern. Med. 144: 1376–1380.
  302. Learmont, J., Tindall, B., Evans, L., Cunningham, A., Cunningham, P., Wells, J., Penny, R., Kaldor, J. and Cooper, D.A. (1992) "Long-term symptomless HIV-I infection in recipients of blood products from a single donor". Lancet 340: 863–867.
  303. Lemaître, M., Guetard, D., Henin, Y., Montagnier, L. and Zerial, A. (1990) "Protective activity of tetracycline analogs against the cytopathic effect of the human immunodeficiency viruses in CEM cells". Res. Virol. 141: 5–16.
  304. Lemp, G.F., Payne, S.F., Rutherford, G.W., Hessol, N.A., Winkelstein, W., Jr., Wiley, J.A., Moss, A.R., Chaisson, R.E., Chen, R.T., Feigel, D.W., Thomas, P.A. and Werdegar, D. (1990) "Projections of AIDS morbidity and mortality in San Francisco". J. Am. Med. Ass. 263: 1497–1501.
  305. Leonhard, H.-W. (1992) Alles nur ein Irrtum? neue praxis: Zeitschrift für Sozialarbeit, Sozialpadagogik und Sozialpolitik 22: 1429.
  306. Lepage, P., Dabis, F., Hitimana, D.-G., Msellati, P., van Goethem, C., Stevens, A.-M., Nsengumuremyi, F., Bazubargira, A., Serufilira, A., De Clercq, A. and van de Perre P. (1991) "Perinatal transmission of HIV-I: lack of impact of maternal HIV infection on characteristics of livebirths and on neonatal mortality in Kigali, Rwanda". AIDS 5: 295–300.
  307. Lerner, W.D. (1989) "Cocaine abuse and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: tale of two epidemics". Am. J. Med. 87: 661–663.
  308. Lesbian and Gay Substance Abuse Planning Group (1991a) Gay Men, Lesbians and their Alcohol and Other Drug Use: A Review of the Literature. San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA.
  309. Lesbian and Gay Substance Abuse Planning Group (1991b) San Francisco Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Substance Abuse Needs Assessment. San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA.
  310. Levy, J. (1988) "Mysteries of HIV: challenges for therapy and prevention". Nature (Lond.) 333: 519–522.
  311. Lifschitz, M.H., Wilson, G.S., Smith, E.O. and Desmond, M.M. (1983) "Fetal and postnatal growth of children born to narcotic-dependent women". J. Pediat. 102: 686–691.
  312. Liversidge, A. (1989) "AIDS: words from the front". Spin 12: 54–56, 60–61, 81.
  313. Lo, S.-C., Tsai, S., Benish, J.R., Shih, J.W.-K., Wear, D.J. and Wong, D.M. (1991) "Enhancement of HIV-I cytocidal effects in CD4+ lymphocytes by the AIDS-associated mycoplasma". Science 251: 1074—1076.
  314. Louria, D.B. (1974) "Infectious complications of nonalcoholic drug abuse". A. Rev. Med. 25: 219–231.
  315. Lowell, C.P. and Glaser, M.G. (1989) "Long term survival of male homosexual patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma". J. R. Soc. Med. 82: 226–227.
  316. Lu, W. and Andrieu, J.-M. (1992) "Similar replication capacities of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates derived from a wide range of clinical sources". J. Virol. 66: 334–340.
  317. Luca-Moretti, M. (1992) "Specific behavioral factors among intravenous drug users have been shown to influence HIV seroconversion". J. intern. Med. Health Ass. 1: 1–9.
  318. Ludlam, C.A. (1992) "AIDS: the alternative view" (letter). Lancet 339: 1547–1548.
  319. Ludlam, C.A., Tucker, J., Steel, C.M., Tedder, R.S., Cheinsong-Popov, R., Weiss, R., McClelland, D.B.L., Phillip, I. and Prescott, R.J. (1985) "Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection in seronegative hemophiliacs after transfusion of factor VIII". Lancet ii: 233–236.
  320. Lui, K.-J, Darrow, W.W. and Rutherford, G. W, III (1988) "A model-based estimate of the mean incubation period for AIDS in homosexual men". Science 240: 1333–1335.
  321. Lusso, P, De Maria, A., Mainati, M., Lori, F., DeRocco, S.E., Baseler, M. and Gallo, R.C. (1991) "Induction of CD4 and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in human CD8+ T lymphocytes by human herpes virus 6". Nature (Lond.) 349: 533–535.
  322. Maddox, J. (1991a) "AIDS research turned upside down". Nature (Lond.) 353: 297.
  323. Maddox, J. (1991b) "Basketball, AIDS and education". Nature (Lond.) 354: 103.
  324. Maddox, J. (1992a) "Rage and confusion hide role of HIV". Nature (Lond.) 357: 188.
  325. Maddox, J. (1992b) "Humbling of world’s AIDS researchers". Nature (Lond.) 358: 367.
  326. Madhok, R., Gracie, A., Lowe, G.D.O., Burnett, A., Froebel, K., Follet, E. and Forbes, C.D. (1986) "Impaired cell mediated immunity in haemophilia in the absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus". Br. Med. J. 293: 978–980.
  327. Mahir, W.S., Millard, R.E., Booth, J.C. and Flute, P.T. (1988) "Functional studies of cell-mediated immunity in haemophilia and other bleeding disorders". Br. J. Haemat. 69: 367–370.
  328. Maikel, R.P. (1988) "The fate and toxicity of butyl nitrites". In: Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants, pp. 15–27, Haverkos, H.W. and Dougherty, J.A. (eds) NIDA Research Monograph 83, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  329. Mann, J., Chin, J., Piot, P. and Quinn, T. (1988) "The international epidemiology of AIDS". Sci. Am. 259:82 89.
  330. Mann, J. and Global AIDS Policy Coalition (1992) AIDS in the World. Harvard International AIDS Center.
  331. Mansuri, M.M., Hitchcock, M.J.M., Buroker, R.A., Bregman, C.L.,Ghazzouli, I., Desiderio, J.V., Starrett, J.E., Stercycki, R.Z. and Martin, J.C. (1990) "Comparison of in vitro biological properties and mouse toxicities of three thymidine analogs active against human immunodeficiency virus". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 637–641.
  332. Marion, S.A., Schechter, M.T., Weaver, M.S., McLeod, W.A., Boyko, W.J., Willoughby, B., Douglas, B., Craib, K.J.P. and O’Shaughnessy, M. (1989) "Evidence that prior immune dysfunction predisposes to human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual men". J. AIDS 2: 178–186.
  333. Marmor, M., Friedman-Kien, A.E., Laubenstein, L., Byrum, R.D., William, D.C., D’Onofrio, S. and Dublin, N. (1982) "Risk factors for Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men". Lancet i: 1083–1087.
  334. Marquart, K.-H, Engst, R. and Oehlschlaegel, G. (1991) "An 8-year history of Kaposi’s sarcoma in an HIV-negative bisexual man". AIDS 5: 346–348.
  335. Martin, M.A., Byran, T., Rasheed, S. and Khan, A.S. (1981) "Identification and cloning of endogenous retroviral sequences present in human DNA". Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 4892—4896.
  336. Marx, J. (1989) "Circumcision may protect against the AIDS virus". Science 245: 470–471.
  337. Mathé, G. (1992) "Is the AIDS virus responsible for the disease?" Biomed. Pharmacother. 46: 1–2.
  338. Matheson, D.S., Green, B.J., Fritzler, M.J., Poon, M.-C., Bowen, T.J. and Hoar, D.I. (1987) "Humoral immune response in patients with hemophilia". Clin. Immun. Immunopath. 4:41 50.
  339. Mathur-Wagh, U., Enlow, R.W., Spigland, I., Winchester, R.J., Sacks, H.S., Rorat, E., Yancovitz, S. R., Klein, M.J., William, D.C. and Mildvan, D. (1984) "Longitudinal study of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy in homosexual men: relation to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Lancet i: 1033–1038.
  340. Mathur-Wagh, U., Mildvan, D. and Senie, R.T. (1985) "Follow-up of 4 1/2 years on homosexual men with generalized lymphadenopathy". New Engl. J. Med. 313: 1542—1543.
  341. McDonough, R.J., Madden, J.J., Falek, A., Shafer, D.A., Pline, M., Gordon, D., Bokof, P., Kuehnle, J.C. and Mandelson, J. (1980) "Alteration of T and null lymphocyte frequencies in the peripheral blood of human opiate addicts: in vivo evidence of opiate receptor sites on T lymphocytes". J. Immun. 125: 2539–2543.
  342. McDunn, S.H., Winter, J.N., Variakojis, D., Rademaker, A.W., von Roenn, J.H., Tallman, M.S., Gordon, L.I. and Bauer, K.D. (1991) "Human immunodeficiency virus-related lymphomas: a possible association between tumor proliferation, lack of ploidy anomalies and immune deficiency". J. Clin. Oncol. 9: 1334–1340.
  343. McGrady, G.A., Jason, J.M. and Evatt, B.L. (1987) "The course of the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States hemophilia population". Am. J. Epidemiol. 126: 25–30.
  344. McKee, M. (1992) "Defense puts AIDS virus on trial". The Recorder, January 17.
  345. McKegney, F.P., O’Dowd, M.A., Feiner, C., Selwyn, P., Drucker, E. and Friedland, G.H. (1990) "A prospective comparison of neuropsychologic function in HIV-seropositive and seronegative methadone maintained patients". AIDS 4: 565–569.
  346. McKeown, T. (1979) "The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage, or Nemesis?" Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  347. Medical Economics Data (1992) Physician’s Desk Reference 1992. Medical Economics Co., Montvale, NJ.
  348. Menitove, J.E., Aster, R.H., Casper, J.T., Lauer, S.J., Gottschall, J.L., Williams, J.E., Gill, J.C., Wheeler, D.V., Piaskowski, V., Kirchner, P. and Montgomery, R.R. (1983) "T-lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with classic hemophilia treated with cryoprecipitate and lyophilized concentrates". New Engl. J. Med. 308: 83–86.
  349. Merriam-Webster (eds) (1965) Webster’s Third International Dictionary. G. and C. Merriam Co., Springfield, MA.
  350. Messiah, A., Mary, J.Y., Brunet, J.B., Rozenbaum, W., Gentilini, M. and Valleron, A.J. (1988) "Risk factors for AIDS among homosexual men in France". Eur. J. Epidemiol. 4: 68–74.
  351. Mientjes, G.H., Miedema, F., van Ameijden, E.J., van den Hoek, A.A., Schellekens, P.T.A., Roos, M.T. and Coutinho, R.A. (1991) "Frequent injecting impairs lymphocyte reactivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users". AIDS 5: 3541.
  352. Mientjes, G.H., van Ameijden, E.J., van den Hoek, A.J.A.R. and Coutinho, R.A. (1992) "Increasing morbidity without rise in non-AIDS mortality among HIVinfected intravenous drug users in Amsterdam". AIDS 6: 207–212.
  353. Mills, J. and Masur, H. (1990) "AIDS-related infections". Sci. Am. 263: 50–57.
  354. Mims, C. and White, D.O. (1984) Viral Pathogenesis and Immunology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  355. Mirvish, S.S. and Haverkos, H.W. (1987) "Butyl nitrite in the induction of Kaposi’s sarcoma in AIDS". New Engl. J. Med. 317: 1603.
  356. Mirvish, S.S., Ramu, M.D. and Babcock, D.M. (1988) "Indications from animal and chemical experiments of a carcinogenic role for isobutyl nitrite". In: Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants, pp. 39—49, Haverkos, H.W. and Dougherrty, J.A. (eds) NIDA Research Monograph 83, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  357. Moberg C.L. and Cohn, Z.A. (1991) "René Jules Dubos". Sci. Am. 264: 66–74.
  358. Mok, J.Q., De Rossi, A., Ades, A.E., Giaquinto, C., Grosch-Woerner, I. and Peckham, C.S. (1987) "Infants born to mothers seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus". Lancet i: 1164–1168.
  359. Montagnier, L., Chermann, J.C., Barré-Sinoussi, F., Chameret, S., Gruest, J., Nugeyre, M.T., Rey, F., Dauguet, C., Axler-Blin, C., Vezinet-Brun, F., Rouzioux, C., Saimot, G.-A, Rozenbaum, W., Gluckman, J: C., Klatzmann, D., Vilmer, E., Griscelli, C., Foyer-Gazengel, C. and Brunet, J.B. (1984) "A new human T-lymphotropic retrovirus: characterization and possible role in lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndromes". In: Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphona Virus; The Family of Human T-Lymphotropic Retroviruses: Their Role in Malignancies and Association with AIDS, pp. 363–379, Gallo, R. C, Essex, M.E. and Gross, L. (eds) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
  360. Moore, J.D.M., Cone, E.J. and Alexander, S.S. (1986) "HTLV-III seropositivity in 1971–1972 parental drug abusers—a case of false positives or evidence of viral exposure?" New Engl. J. Med. 314: 1387–1388.
  361. Morgan, M., Curran, J.W. and Berkelman, R.L. (1990) "The future course of AIDS in the United States". J. Am. Med. Ass. 263: 1539–1540.
  362. Moss, A.R. (1987) "AIDS and intravenous drug use: the real heterosexual epidemic". Br. Med. J. 294: 389–390.
  363. Moss, A.R., Osmond, D., Bacchetti, P., Chermann, J., Barré-Sinoussi, F. and Carlson, J. (1987) "Risk factors for AIDS and HIV seropositivity in homosexual men". Am. J. Epidemiol. 125: 1035–1047.
  364. Moss, A.R., Osmond, D. and Bacchetti, P. (1988) "The cause of AIDS". Science 242: 997.
  365. Muñoz, A., Vlahov, D., Solomon, L., Margolick, J.B., Bareta, J.C., Cohn, S., Astemborski, J. and Nelson, K.E. (1992) "Prognostic indicators for development of AIDS among intravenous drug users". J. AIDS 5: 694–700.
  366. Murray, H.W., Scavuzzo, D.A., Kelly, C.D., Rubin, B.Y. and Roberts, R.B. (1988) "T4+ cell production of interferon gamma and the clinical spectrum of patients at risk for and with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Arch. intern. Med. 148: 1613–1616.
  367. Nakamura, N., Sugino, H., Takahara, K., Jin, C., Fukushige, S. and Matsubara, K. (1991) "Endogenous retroviral LTR DNA sequences as markers for individual human chromosomes". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 57: 18–22.
  368. National Center for Health Statistics (1989) Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Department of Health and Human Services—Public Health Service—Publication No. (PMS) 89–1120, Hyattsville, MD.
  369. National Center for Health Statistics (1992) Health, United States, 1991. Public Health Service, Hyattsville, MD.
  370. National Commission on AIDS (1991) The Twin Epidemics of Substance Use and HIV. National Commission on AIDS, Washington, D.C.
  371. National Institute on Drug Abuse (1987) Trends in Drug Abuse Related Hospital Emergency Room Episodes and Medical Examiner Cases for Selected Drugs: DAWN 1976–1985. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD.
  372. National Institute on Drug Abuse (1990a) Annual Emergency Room Data 1990. U.S. Deparment of Health and Human Services.
  373. National Institute on Drug Abuse (1990b) Annual Medical Examiner Data 1990. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  374. Nelson, J., Rodack, J., Fitz, R. and Smith, A.B. (1991) "Magic reeling as worst nightmare comes true—he’s getting sicker". National Enquirer, December 10.
  375. Newell, G.R., Mansell, P.W.A., Wilson, M.B., Lynch, H.K., Spitz, M.R. and Hersh, E.M. (1985a) "Risk factor analysis among men referred for possible acquired immune deficiency syndrome". Prevent. Med. 14: 81–91.
  376. Newell, G.R., Mansell, P.W.A., Spitz, M.R., Reuben, J.M. and Hersh, E.M. (1985b) "Volatile nitrites: use and adverse effects related to the current epidemic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome". Am. J. Med. 78:811–816.
  377. Newell, G. R, Spitz, M.R. and Wilson, M.B. (1988) "Nitrite inhalants: historical perspective". In: Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants, pp. 1–14, Haverkos, H.W. and Dougherty, J.A. (eds) NIDA Research Monograph 83, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  378. News Report (1992) "HHS Secretary Sullivan: no cause for alarm over HIV-negative immune deficiency". AIDS Weekly, August 3: 2–5.
  379. Nicholson, J. (1992) "Rebel scientists: HIV doesn’t cause AIDS". New York Post, July 23.
  380. Novice, D. M, Brown, D.J.C., Log, A.S. F, Lloyd, J.C. and Thomas, H.C. (1986) "Influence of sexual preference and chronic hepatitis B virus infection on T lymphocyte subsets, natural killer activity, and suppressor cell activity". J. Hepatol. 3: 363–370.
  381. Nussbaum, B. (1990) Good Intentions: How Big Business, Politics, and Medicine are Corrupting the Fight Against AIDS. Atlantic Monthly Press, New York.
  382. O’Brien, T. R, George, J. R and Holmberg, S.D. (1992) "Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection in the United States". J. Am. Med. Ass. 267: 2775–2779.
  383. Office of National Drug Control Policy (1988) The National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee Reports. Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.
  384. Oppenheimer, G.M. (1992) "Causes, cases, and cohorts: the role of epidemiology in the historical construction of AIDS". In: AIDS: The Making of a Chronic Disease, pp. 49–83, Fee, E. and Fox, D.M. (eds) University of California Press, Berkeley.
  385. Osterloh, J. and Olson, K. (1986) "Toxicities of alkyl nitrites". Ann. intern. Med. 104: 727.
  386. Ostrow, D.G., van Raden, M.J., Fox, R., Kingsley, L.A., Dudley, J., Kaslow, R.A. and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) (1990) "Recreational drug use and sexual behavior change in a cohort of homosexual men". AIDS 4: 759–765.
  387. Ou, C.Y., Ciesielski, C.A., Myers, G., Bandea, C.I., Luo, C.-C., Korber, B.T.M., Mullins, J.I., Schochetman, G., Berkelman, R. L., Economou, A. N., Witte, J.J., Furman, L. J., Satten, G.A., Macinnes, K.A., Curran, J.W., Jaffe, H.W., Laboratory Investigation Group and Epidemiologic Investigation Group (1992) "Molecular epidemiology of HIV transmission in a dental practice". Science 256: 1165–1171.
  388. Palca, J. (1990) "A reliable animal model for AIDS". Science 248: 1078.
  389. Palca, J. (1991) "The sobering geography of AIDS". Science 252: 372–373.
  390. Palca, J. (1992a) "The case of the Florida dentist". Science 255: 392–394.
  391. Palca, J. (1992b) "CDC closes the case of the Florida dentist". Science 256: 1130–1131.
  392. Pallangyo, K.J., Mbaga, I.M., Mugusi, F., Mbena, E., Mhalu, F.S., Bredberg, U. and Biberfeld, G. (1987) "Clinical case definition of AIDS in African adults". Lancet ii: 972.
  393. Papadopolous-Eleopulos, E. (1988) "Reappraisal of AIDS—Is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary cause?" Med. Hypotheses 25: 151–162.
  394. Peterman, T.A., Stoneburner, R.L., Allen, J.R., Jaffe, H.W. and Curran, J.W. (1988) "Risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission from heterosexual adults with transfusion-associated infections". J. Am. Med. Ass. 259: 55–58.
  395. Peters, B.S, Beck. J, Coleman, D.G., Wadsworth, M.J.H., McGuiness, O., Harris, J.R.W. and Pinching, A.J. (1991) "Changing disease patterns in patients with AIDS in a referral centre in the United Kingdom: the changing face of AIDS". Br. Med. J. 302: 203–207.
  396. Pifer, L.L. (1984) "Pneumocystis carinii: a misunderstood opportunist". Eur. J. clin. Microbiol. 3: 169–173.
  397. Pillai, R., Nair, B.S. and Watson, R.R. (1991) "AIDS, drugs of abuse and the immune system: a complex immunotoxicological network". Arch. Toxicol. 65: 609–617.
  398. Piot, P., Plummer, F.A., Mhalu, F.S., Lamboray, J.-L, Chin, J. and Mann, J.M. (1988) "AIDS: an international perspective". Science 239: 573–579.
  399. Pitchenik, A.E., Burr, J., Suarez, M., Fertel, D., Gonzalez, G. and Moas, C. (1987) "Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-III (HTLV-III) seropositivity and related disease among 71 consecutive patients in whom tuberculosis was diagnosed: a retrospective study". Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 135: 875–879.
  400. Pitchenik, A.E., Burr, P., Laufer, M., Miller, G., Cacciatore, R., Bigler, W.J., Witte, J.J. and Cleary, T. (1990) "Outbreaks of drug-resistant tuberculosis at AIDS centre". Lancet 336: 440–441.
  401. Pluda, J.M., Yarchoan, R., Jaffe, E.S., Feuerstein, I.M., Solomon, D., Steinberg, S., Wyvill, K.M., Raubitschek, A., Katz, D. and Broder, S. (1990) "Development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a cohort of patients with severe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on long-term antiretroviral therapy". Ann. intern. Med. 113: 276–282.
  402. Pollack, S., Atais, D., Yoffe, G., Katz, R., Shechter, Y. and Tatarsky, I. (1985) "Impaired immune function in hemophilia patients treated exclusively with cryoprecipitate: relation to duration of treatment". Am. J. Hematol. 20: 1–6.
  403. Prince, H.E. (1992) "The significance of T lymphocytes in transfusion medicine". Transfusion Med. Rev. 16: 32–43.
  404. Project Inform (1992) Is HIV the cause of AIDS? Project Discussion Paper #5, San Francisco, May 27.
  405. Puschel, K. and Mohsenian, F. (1991) "HIV-I-prevalence among drug deaths in Germany". In: Drug Addiction and AIDS, pp. 89–96, Loimer, N., Schmid, R. and Springer, A. (eds) Springer-Verlag, New York.
  406. Quinn, T.C., Mann, J.M., Curran, J.W. and Piot, P. (1986) "AIDS in Africa: an epidemiological paradigm". Science 234: 955–963.
  407. Quinn, T.C., Piot, P., McCormick, J.B., Feinsod, F.M., Taelman, H., Kapita, B., Stevens, W. and Fauci, A.S. (1987) "Serologic and immunologic studies in patients with AIDS in North America and Africa: the potential role of infectious agents as cofactors in human immunodeficiency virus infection". J. Am. Med. Ass. 257: 2617–2621.
  408. Rappoport, J. (1988) AIDS Inc. Human Energy Press, San Bruno, CA.
  409. Ratner, R.A. (1992) "Editor’s Notes; Duesberg: An enemy of the people?" MSDC Physician, June/July 6: 4–5.
  410. Raymond, C.A. (1988) "Combating a deadly combination: intravenous drug abuse, acquired immuno deficiency syndrome". New Engl. J. Med. 259: 329–332.
  411. Rezza, G., Lazzarin, A., Angarano, G., Zerboni, R., Sinicco, A., Salassa, B., Pristera, R., Barbanera, M., Ortona, L. and Aiuti, F. (1990) "Risk of AIDS in HIV seroconverters: a comparison between intravenous drug users and homosexual males". Eur. J. Epidemiol. 6: 99–101.
  412. Richman, D.D., Fischl, M.A., Grieco, M.H., Gottlieb, M.S., Volberding, P.A., Laskin, O.L., Leedom, J.M., Groopman, J.E., Mildvan, D., Hirsch, M.S., Jackson, G.G., Durack, D.T., Nusinoff-Lehrman, S. and the AZT Collaborative Working Group (1987) "The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex". New Engl. J. Med. 317: 192–197.
  413. Rogers, M.F., Ou, C.-Y., Rayfield, M., Thomas, P.A., Schoenbaum, E.E., Abrams, E., Krasinski, K., Selwyn, P.A., Moore, J., Kaul, A., Grimm, K.T., Bamji, M., Schochetman, G., The New York City Collaborative Study of Maternal HIV Transmission and Montefiori Medical Center HIV Perinatal Transmission Study Group (1989) "Use of the polymerase chain reaction for early detection of the proviral sequences of human immunodeficiency virus in infants born to seropositive mothers". New Engl. J. Med. 320: 1649–1654.
  414. Root-Bernstein, R.S. (1990a) "Do we know the cause(s) of AIDS?" Perspect. Biol. Med. 33: 480–500.
  415. Root-Bernstein, R.S. (1990b) "Multiple-antigen-mediated autoimmunity (MAMA) in AIDS: a possible model for postinfectious autoimmune complications". Res. Immun. 141: 321–339.
  416. Root-Bernstein, R.S. (1990c) "Non-HIV immunosuppressive factors in AIDS: a multifactorial, synergistic theory of AIDS etiology". Res. Immun. 141: 815–838.
  417. Rosenberg, M.J. and Weiner, J.M. (1988) "Prostitutes and AIDS: a health department priority?" Am. J. Pub. Health 78: 418–423.
  418. Rowe, W.P. (1973) "Genetic factors in the natural history of murine leukemia virus infection: G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Lecture". Cancer Res. 33: 3061–3068.
  419. Rubin, H. and Temin, H. (1958) "A radiological study of cell-virus interaction in the Rous sarcoma". Virology 7: 75–91.
  420. Rubinstein, E. (1990) "II: The untold story of HUT78". Science 248: 1499–1507.
  421. Safai, B., Peralta, H., Menzies, K., Tizon, H., Roy, P., Flomberg, N. and Wolinsky, S. (1991) "Kaposi’s sarcoma among HIV-negative high risk population". VII International Conference on AIDS, Florence, Italy.
  422. Salahuddin, S.K., Nakamura, S., Biberfeld, P., Kaplan, M.H., Markham, P.D., Larsson, L. and Gallo, R.C. (1988) "Angiogenic properties of Kaposi’s sarcoma-derived cells after long-term culture in vitro". Science 242: 430–433.
  423. Sande, M.A. (1986) "Transmission of AIDS. The case against casual contagion". New Engl. J. Med. 314: 380–382.
  424. Sapura, J.D. (1968) "The narcotic addict as a medical patient". Am. J. Med. 45: 555–588.
  425. Sarngadharan, M.G., Popovic, M., Bruch, L., Schupach, J. and Gallo, R. (1984) "Antibodies reactive with Human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) in the serum of patients with AIDS". Science 224: 506–508.
  426. Savitz, E.J. (1991) "No magic cure, the war on AIDS produces few gains except on Wall Street". Barron’s December 16: 10–29.
  427. Savona, S., Nardi, M.A., Lenette, E.T. and Karpatkin, S. (1985) "Thrombocytopenic purpura in narcotics addicts". Ann. intern. Med. 102: 737–741.
  428. Scheper-Hughes, N. and Herrick, R. (1992) "Ethical tangles: Cuba’s highly controversial AIDS and HIV program raises thorny ethical issues". New Internationalist (Oxford, U.K.), May: 35.
  429. Schnittman, S.M., Psallidopoulos, M.C., Lane, H.C., Thompson, L., Baseler, R, M., Massari, F., Fox, C.H., Salzman, N.P. and Fauci, A. (1989) "The reservoir for HIV-I in human peripheral blood is a T cell that maintains expression of CD4". Science 245: 305–308.
  430. Schoch, R. (1992) "Dad, I’m HIV positive". Newsweek, August 17: 9.
  431. Schüpach, J. (1986) "First isolation of HTLV-III". Nature (Lond.) 321: 119–120.
  432. Schuster, C.R. (1984) "Foreword". In: Cocaine: Pharmacology, Effects and Treatment of Abuse, pp. 7–8, Grabowski, J. (ed.) NIDA Research Monograph 50, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  433. Schwartz, R.H. (1988) "Deliberate inhalation of isobutyl nitrite during adolescence: a descriptive study". In: Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants, pp. 81–85, Haverkos, H.W. and Dougherty, J.A. (eds) NIDA Research Monograph 83, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  434. Schwitzer, G. (1992) "The magical medical media tour". J. Am. Med. Ass. 267: 1969–1971.
  435. Scolaro, M., Durham, R. and Pieczenik, G. (1991) "Potential molecular competitor for HIV". Lancet 337: 731–732.
  436. Seage, G.R., Mayer, K.H., Horsburgh, C.R., Holmberg, S.D., Moon, M.W. and Lamb, G.A. (1992) "The relation between nitrite inhalants, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection". J. Am. Epidemiol. 135:1–11.
  437. Seligmann, M., Chess, L., Fahey, J.L., Fauci, A.S., Lachmann, P.J., L’age-Stehr, J., Ngu, J., Pinching, A.J., Rosen, F.S., Spira, T.J. and Wybran, J. (1984) "AIDS—an immunologic reevaluation". New Engl. J. Med. 311: 1286–1292.
  438. Selik, R.M., Starcher, E.T. and Curran, J.W. (1987) "Opportunistic diseases reported in AIDS patients: frequencies, associations, and trends". AIDS 1: 175–182.
  439. Selik, R.M., Buehler, J.W., Karon, J.M., Chamberland, M.E. and Berkelman, R.L. (1990) "Impact of the 1987 revision of the case definition of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States". J. AIDS 3: 73–82.
  440. Selwyn, P.A., Feingold, A.R., Hartel, D., Schoenbaum, E.E., Adderman, M.H., Klein, R.S. and Freidland, S.H. (1988) "Increased risk of bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected intravenous drug users without AIDS". AIDS 2: 267–272.
  441. Selwyn, P.A., Hartel, D, Wasserman, W. and Drucker, E. (1989) "Impact of the AIDS epidemic on morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users in a New York City methadone maintenance program". Am. J. Publ. Health 79: 1358–1362.
  442. Semple, M., Loveday, C., Weller, I. and Tedder, R. (1991) "Direct measurement of viraemia in patients infected with HIV-I and its relationship to disease progression and zidovudine therapy". J. Med. Virol. 35: 38–45.
  443. Shannon, E., Booth, C., Fowler, D. and McBride, M. (1990) "A loosing battle". Time, December 3, 24: 4448.
  444. Sharp, R.A., Morley, S.M., Beck, J.S. and Urquhart, G.E.D. (1987) "Unresponsive to skin testing with bacterial antigens in patients with haemophilia not apparently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)" J. clin. Path. 40: 849–852.
  445. Shaw, G.M., Hahn, B.H., Arya, S.K., Groopman, J.E., Gallo, R.C. and Wong- Staal, F. (1984) "Molecular characterization of human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type III in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome". Science 226:1165–1171.
  446. Shenton, J. (1992) "HIV, AIDS, and zidovudine". Lancet 339: 806.
  447. Shigematsu, I., Yanagawa, H., Yamamoto, S.-I. and Nakae, K. (1975) "Epidemiological approach to SMON (Subacute Myelo-optico-neuropathy)". Jap. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 28 (Suppl.): 23–33.
  448. Shilts, R. (1987) And the Band Played On. St Martin’s Press, New York.
  449. Shilts, R. (1991) "Gay troops in the Gulf War can’t come out". San Francisco Chronicle, February 2.
  450. Shorter, E. (1987) The Health Century. Doubleday, New York.
  451. Simmonds, P., Balfe, P., Peutherer, J. F, Ludlam, C.A., Bishop, J.O. and Leigh-Brown, A.J. (1990) "Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individual contain provirus in small numbers of peripheral mononuclear cells and at low copy numbers". J. Virol. 64: 864–872.
  452. Smith, D.G. (1990) "Thailand: AIDS crisis looms". Lancet 335: 781–782.
  453. Smith, G.D. and Phillips, A.N. (1992) "Confounding in epidemiological studies: why “independent” effects may not be all they seem". Br. Med. J. 305: 757–759.
  454. Smothers, K. (1991) "Pharmacology and toxicology of AIDS therapies". The AIDS Reader 1: 29–35.
  455. Sonnabend, J.A. Witkin, S.S. and Purtillo, D.T. (1983) "A multifactorial model for the development of AIDS in homosexual men". Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 437: 177–183.
  456. Spira, T.J. and Jones, B.M. (1992) "Is there another agent that causes low CD4 counts and AIDS?" J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) 16E: 56.
  457. Spornraft, P., Froschl, M., Ring, J., Meurer, M., Goebel, F.D., Ziegler-Heitbrock, H.W., Riethmüller, G. and Braun-Falco, O. (1988) "T4/T8 ratio and absolute T4 cell numbers in different clinical stages of Kaposi’s sarcoma in AIDS". Br. J. Derm. 119: 1–9.
  458. Sprent, J. (1977) Migration and Lifespan of Lymphocytes, in B and T cells in Immune Recognition. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  459. Stark, K., Muller, R., Gugenmoos-Holzmann, I., Deininger, S., Meyer, E. and Bienzle, U. (1990) "HIV infection in intravenous drug abusers in Berlin: risk factors and time trends". Klin. Wochenschr. 68: 415–420.
  460. Stehr-Green, J.K., Holman, R.C., Jason, J.M. and Evatt, B.L. (1988) "Hemophilia-associated AIDS in the United States, 1981 to September 1987". Am. J. Pub. Health 78: 439442.
  461. Stehr-Green, J.K., Jason, J.M., Evatt, B.L. and Hemophilia-Associated AIDS Study Group (1989) "Geographic variability of hemophilia-associated AIDS in the United States: effect of population characteristics". Am. J. Hematol. 32: 178–183.
  462. Steinbrook, R. (1992) "Scientists infect monkeys with human AIDS virus". Los Angeles Times, June 12.
  463. Stewart, G.T. (1968) "Limitations of the germ theory". Lancet i: 1077–1081.
  464. Stewart, G.T. (1989) "Uncertainties about AIDS and HIV". Lancet i: 1325.
  465. St Louis, M.E., Conway, G.A., Hayman, C.R., Miller, C., Peterson, L.R. and Dondero, T.J. (1991) "Human immunodeficiency virus infection in disadvantaged adolescents". J. Am. Med. Ass. 266: 2387–2391.
  466. Stoneburner, R. L., Des Jarlais, D.C., Benezra, D., Gorelkin, L., Sotheran, J. L., Friedman, S. R., Schultz, S., Marmor, M., Mildvan, D. and Maslansky, R. (1988) "A larger spectrum of severe HIV-I-related disease in intravenous drug users in New York City". Science 242: 916–919.
  467. Stutman, O. (1975) "Immunodepression and malignancy". Adv. Cancer Res. 22: 261–422.
  468. Sullivan, J.L., Brewster, F.E., Brettler, D.B., Forsberg, A.D., Cheeseman, S.H., Byron, K.S., Baker, S.M., Willitts, D.L., Lew, R.A. and Levine, P.H. (1986) "Hemophiliac immunodeficiency: influence of exposure to factor VIII concentrate, LAV/HTLV-III, and herpes viruses". J. Pediat. 108: 504–510.
  469. Swanson, C. E, Cooper, D.A. and Australian Zidovudine Study Group (1990) "Factors influencing outcome of treatment with zidovudine of patients with AIDS in Australia". AIDS 4: 749–757.
  470. Taelman, H., Kagame, A., Batungwanayo, J., Booaerts, J., Clerinx, J., Allen, S. and van de Perre, P. (1991) "Tuberculosis and HIV infection" (letter). Br. Med. J. 302: 1206.
  471. Tedder, R.S., Semple, M.G., Tenant-Flowers, M. and Loveday, C. (1992) "HIV, AIDS, and zidovudine". Lancet 339: 805.
  472. Temin, H.M. (1990) "Proof in the pudding". Policy Review 54: 71–72.
  473. Temin, H. and Mitzutani, S. (1970) "RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus". Nature (Lond.) 226:1211–1213.
  474. Terry, C.E. and Pellens, M. (1928) The Opium Problem. Bureau of Social Hygiene of New York.
  475. The Software Toolworks World Atlas™ (1992) "Population Growth Rate". Chatsworth, CA.
  476. Thompson, D. (1990) "A long battle with AIDS". Time July 2: 42–43.
  477. Till, M. and MacDonnell, K.B. (1990) "Myopathy with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-I) infection: HIV-I or zidovudine?" Ann. intern. Med. 113: 492–494.
  478. Toufexis, A. (1991) "Innocent victims". Time May 13, 19: 56–60.
  479. Treichler, P.A. (1992) "The country and the city: dreams of Third World AIDS". In: AIDS: The Making of a Chronic Disease, pp. 386–412, Fee, E. and Fox, D.M. (eds) University of California Press, Berkeley.
  480. Tsoukas, C., Gervais, F., Shuster, J., Gold, P., O’Shaughnessy, M. and Robert-Guroff, M. (1984) "Association of HTLV-III antibodies and cellular immune status of hemophiliacs". New Engl. J. Med. 311: 1514–1515.
  481. Turner, C.F., Miller, H.G. and Moses, L.E. (1989) AIDS, Sexual Behavior and Intravenous Drug Use. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  482. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1990) National HIV Serosurveillance Summary. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta.
  483. Valentine, C.B., Weston, R., Kitchen, V., Main, J., Moncrieff, K.C. and Aber, V.R. (1992) "Anonymous questionnaire to assess consumption of prescribed and alternative medication and patterns of recreational drug use in a HIV population". AIDS Weekly, August 10: 18.
  484. Vandenbroucke, J.P. and Pardoel, V.P.A.M. (1989) "An autopsy of epidemiologic methods: the case of “poppers” in the early epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)". J. Epidemiol. 129: 455–457.
  485. van Griensven, G.J.P., Tielman, R.A.P., Goudsmit, J., van der Noorda, J., de Wolf, F., de Vroome, E.M.M. and Coutinho, R.A. (1987) "Risk factors and prevalence of HIV antibodies in homosexual men in The Netherlands". Am. J. Epidemiol. 125: 1048–1057.
  486. van Griensven, G.J.P., Vroome, E.M.M., de Wolf, H., Goudsmit, J., Roos, M. and Coutinho, R.A. (1990) "Risk factors for progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among seroconverted and seropositive homosexual men". Am. J. Epidemiol. 132: 203–210.
  487. van Leeuwen, R., van den Hurk, P.J., Jobis, G.J., van der Wouw, P.A., Reiss, P., Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J.K.M., Danner, S.A. and Lange, J.M.A. (1990) "Failure to maintain high-dose treatment regimens during long-term use of zidovudine in patients with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection". Genitourin Med. 66: 418–422.
  488. van Voorhis, B.J., Martinez, A., Mayer, K. and Anderson, D.J. (1991) "Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in semen from seropositive men using culture and polymerase chain reaction deoxyribonucleic acid amplification techniques". Fertil. Steril. 55: 588–594.
  489. Varmus, H. (1988) "Regulation of HIV and HTLV gene expression". Genes Dev. 2: 1055–1062.
  490. Vermund, S. (1991) "Changing estimates of HIV-I seroprevalence in the United States". J. NIH Res. 3: 77–81.
  491. Villinger, F., Powell, J. D, Jehuda-Cohen, T., Neckelmann, N., Vuchetich, M., De, B., Folks, T.M., McClure, H.M. and Ansari, A.A. (1991) "Detection of occult simian immunodeficiency virus SIV smm infection in asymptomatic seronegative nonhuman primates and evidence for variation in SIV gag sequence between in vivo- and in vitro-propagated virus". J. Virol. 65: 1855–1862.
  492. Voevodin, A. (1992) "HIV screening in Russia" (letter). Lancet 339: 1548.
  493. Volberding, P.A., Lagakos, S.W., Koch, M.A., Petinelli, C., Myers, M. W, Booth, D.K., Balfour, H. H., JR, Reichman, R.C., Bartlett, J.A., Hirsch, M.S., Murphy, R.L., Hardy, W.D., Soeiro, R., Fischl, M.A., Bartlett, J.G., Merigan, T.C., Hyslop, N.E., Richman, D.D., Valentine, F.T., Corey, L. and AIDS Clinical Trial Group (1990) "Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection: a controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter". New Engl. J. Med. 322: 941–949.
  494. Waldholz, M. (1992) "Stymied Science: New Discoveries Dim Drug Makers’ Hopes for Quick AIDS Cure". Wall Street Journal May 26.
  495. Walker, R.E., Parker R.I., Kovacs, J.A., Masur, H., Lane, H.C., Carleton, S., Kirk, L.E., Gralnick H.R. and Fauci, A.S. (1988) "Anaemia and erythropoiesis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Kaposi sarcoma treated with zidovudine". Ann. intern. Med. 108: 372–376.
  496. Walton, J., Beeson, P.B. and Scott, R.B. (eds) (1986) The Oxford Companion to Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.
  497. Wang, L.-H, Galehouse, D., Mellon, P., Duesberg, P., Mason, W. and Vogt, P.K. (1976) "Mapping oligonucleotides of Rous sarcoma virus RNA that segregate with polymerase and group-specific antigen markers in recombinants". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 3952–3956.
  498. Ward, J.W., Bush, T.J., Perkins, H.A., Lieb, L.E., Allen, J.R., Goldfinger, D., Samson, S.M., Pepkowitz, S.H., Fernando, L.P., Holland, P.V. and Study Group from the AIDS Program (1989) "The natural history of transfusion-associated infection with human immunodeficiency virus". New Engl. J. Med. 321: 947–952.
  499. Weber, J.N., Rogers, L.A., Scott, K., Berrie, E., Harris, J.R.W., Wadsworth, J., Moshtael, O., McManus, T., Jeffries, D.J. and Pinching, A.J. (1986) "Threeyear prospective study of HTLV-III/LAV infection in homosexual men". Lancet i: 1179–1182.
  500. Weber, R., Ledergerber, W., Opravil, M., Siegenthaler, W. and Lüthy, R. (1990) "Progression of HIV infection in misusers of injected drugs who stop injecting or follow a programme of maintenance treatment with methadone". Br. Med. J. 301: 1361–1365.
  501. Weiss, R.A. (1988) "A virus in search of a disease". Nature (Lond.) 333: 497–498.
  502. Weiss, R.A. (1989) "AIDS: defective viruses to blame?" Nature (Lond.) 338: 458.
  503. Weiss, R.A. (1991) "Provenance of HIV strains". Nature (Lond.) 349: 374.
  504. Weiss, R.A. and Jaffe, H. (1990) "Duesberg, HIV and AIDS". Nature (Lond.) 345: 659–660.
  505. Weiss, R, Teich, N., Varmus, H. and Coffin, J. (1985) Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.
  506. Weiss, S.H. (1989) "Links between cocaine and retroviral infection". J. Am. Med. Ass. 261: 607–609.
  507. Weiss, S.H., Goedert, J.J., Gartner, S., Popovic, M., Waters, D., Markam, P., Di Marzo Veronesi, F., Gall, M.H., Gallo, R.C. and Blattner, W.A. (1988) "Risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I) infection among laboratory workers". Science 239: 68–71.
  508. Weller, R. (1955) Zur Erzeugung von Pneumocystosen im Tierversuch. Zeitschrift fur Kinderheilkunde 76: 366–378.
  509. Weniger, B.G., Limpakarnjanarat, K., Uungchusak, K., Thanprasertsuk, S., Choopanya, K., Vanichseni, S., Uneklabh, T., Thongcharoen, P. and Wasi, C. (1991) "The epidemiology of HIV infection and AIDS in Thailand". AIDS 5 (Suppl. 2): s71–s85.
  510. Weyer, J. and Eggers, H.J. (1990) "On the structure of the epidemic spread of AIDS: the influence of an infectious coagent". Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 273: 52–67.
  511. Widy-Wirski, R., Berkley, S., Downing, R., Okware, S., Recine, U., Mugerwas, R., Lwegaba, A. and Sempala, S. (1988) "Evaluation of the WHO clinical case definition for AIDS in Uganda". J. Am. Med. Ass. 260: 3286–3289.
  512. Williams, A.E., Fang, C.T. and Sandler, G. (1990) "HTLV-I/II and blood transfusion in the United States". In: Human Retrovirology: HTLV, pp. 349–362, Blattner, W.A. (ed.) Raven Press, New York.
  513. Williford Pifer, L.L., Woods, D.R., Edwards, C.C., Joyner, R.E., Anderson, F.J. and Arheart, K. (1988) "Pneumocytis carinii serologic study in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Am. J. Dis. Child. 142: 36–39.
  514. Winkelstein, W., Jr., Lyman, D.H., Padian, N., Grant, R., Samuel, M., Wiley, J.A., Anderson, R.E., Lang, W, Riggs, J. and Levy, J.A. (1987) "Sexual practices and risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus: the San Francisco men’s health study". J. Am. Med. Ass. 257: 321–325.
  515. Witte, J.J. and Wilcox, K.R. (1991) "Update: transmission of HIV infection during invasive dental procedures—Florida". Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 40: 377–381.
  516. Wood, R.W. (1988) "The acute toxicity of butyl nitrites". In: Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants, pp. 28–38, Haverkos, H.W. and Dougherty, J.A. (eds) NIDA Research Monograph 83, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.
  517. World Health Organization (1992a) WHO-Report No. 32: AIDS Surveillance in Europe (Situation by 31st December 1991). World Health Organization, Geneva.
  518. World Health Organization (1992b) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)—Data as of I January 1992. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  519. Yarchoan, R. and Broder, S. (1987a) "Antiretroviral therapy for AIDS". New Engl. J. Med. 317: 630.
  520. Yarchoan, R. and Broder, S. (1987b) "Development of antiretroviral therapy for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related disorders". New Engl. J. Med. 316: 557–564.
  521. Yarchoan, R., Pluda, J.M., Perno, C.-F., Mitsuya, H. and Broder, S. (1991) "Antiretroviral therapy of human immunodeficiency virus infection: current strategies and challenges for the future". Blood 78: 859–884.